Energy Metabolism in the Canis Familiaris Essay

2405 Words Oct 17th, 2013 10 Pages
Energy Metabolism of the Canis familiaris

Kristy Stewart

17153535

1. Introduction
Understanding where, and how the energy that enables life to exist comes from, known as energy metabolism (Cox and Nelson 2013), is integral to understanding health and nutrient needs for organisms. The study of energy metabolism is applicable in many areas; medicine and agricultural livestock health and production are two major applications for this discipline of study. There are different forms of energy metabolism throughout organisms on this planet, however many share the same basic cycles and functions at a metabolic rate. For example, a practically universal central pathway for the metabolism of glucose is glycolysis; the break down of glucose
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The food in the stomach can remain there for up to 8 hours in which then passes through the pylorus (opening from the stomach to the duodenum/small intestine) into the duodenum and rest of the small intestine (Eldredge and Giffin 2007). The food is broken down into smaller pieces via digestive juices from the pancreas and small intestine (Cox and Nelson 2013). Fats are broken down to monoacylglycerols and long-chain fatty acids, proteins are broken down to amino acids and small peptides, and carbohydrates are broken down to monosaccharides (mainly glucose) (Da Poian et al. 2010) These products of food digestion are absorbed through the intestinal mucosa (epithelial mucosa) of the villi that line the small intestine. Amino acids, peptides and monosaccharides (glucose) are absorbed into the capillaries, the monoacylglycerol and long chain fatty acids are absorbed into the lymphatic system (Cox and Nelson 2013, Da Poian et al. 2010). Any undigested food and fibre move through the small intestine into the colon where this waste material is stored and excreted as faeces (Eldredge and Giffin 2007).

2.1. Fat breakdown

Ingested dietary fats are converted from insoluble macroscopic fats to microscopic micelles to allow absorption through the intestinal wall (Cox and Nelson 2013). This is achieved through the action of bile salts, which emulsify them in the small intestine forming mixed micelles, and intestinal lipases then hydrolyse (degrade) them. This then allows

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