Acute Myocardial Infarction

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Introduction According to the American Heart Association, heart disease accounts for more than 17.3 million deaths a year and this number is expected to grow to more than 23.6 million in 2030. There are several types of heart disease, one of them being acute myocardial infarction also known as heart attack. Myocardial infarction is the damaging or death of an area of the heart muscle caused by blockage in the blood supply of that area. Myocardial infarction happens when the arteries become blocked causing blood flow to either stop or decrease. There are several factors that can cause a heart attack. One of those factors is bad cholesterol which can stick to the walls of the arteries and produce plaque which causes the arteries to become blocked. …show more content…
Oxygen consumption, which is the amount of oxygen taken up and used by the body per minute, is considered to be a predictor of the longevity of both young and elderly people. Recovery heart rate, defined as the fall in heartrate during the first minute after exercise, is a sign of vagal tone, which is also considered a powerful indicator of mortality in patients with heart disease. The study included a total of 228 patients, age 65 or older, all recovering from acute myocardial infarction. The patients were then subdivided into two groups (A and B) by certain characteristics. Table 1 shows how the patients were divided. Patients with other types of heart disease were excluded from this study. Group A patients were enrolled in a 3 month exercise training program. The program included such things as patient education, counselling and psychological intervention. Group B was not given an exercise training program, rather they were discharged with recommendations only. After 3 months, both groups underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test. Group A patients were asked to attend the exercise training program 3 times per week. Each session consisted of the patients pedaling for 30 minutes on a bicycle, while being under electrocardiogram monitoring and having their blood pressured monitored every 2 minutes. The patients’ …show more content…
The data showed a reduction in cardiovascular mortality for those who signed up in an exercised based rehabilitation program. There exists a direct correlation between the long term prognosis of patients with cardiovascular disease and heart rate recovery within the first minute after exercising. In group A there was a substantial reduction in resting heart rate. Stimulation of the vagus nerve results in a direct effect on both the sinus node, which is the hearts natural pace maker and the heart. It also shows considerate activity through pre and postsynaptic networks. Reducing the amount that the heart has to work and the demand of oxygen it takes for it work is an advantage when it comes to acute myocardial infarction and left ventricle dysfunction. There is lengthy evidence that demonstrates the value of heart rate recovery among populations with heart disease, however the older population is often not provided with exercised based rehabilitation programs, which leads to not knowing if heart rate recovery improves in older patients when they participate in an exercised based program. The study proved that those elderly patients who suffered an acute myocardial infarction and were enrolled in an exercise based program, had a significant improvement in their resting heart rate recovery. The group which did not enrolled in the program showed no improvements in resting heart rate recovery.

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