Essay about Drivers

954 Words Nov 5th, 2012 4 Pages

The key factors seem to underlie the trend towards the increasing globalization of markets and production:

1. The decline of barriers to trade and investment:

Decline in Trade barriers:
Many of the barriers to international trade took the form of high tariffs on imports of manufactured goods. However, this depressed world demand and contributed to the great depression of the 1930’s. After World War II, the industrialized countries of the West started a process of removing barriers to the free flow of goods, services, and capital between nations. Under GATT, over 140 nations negotiated even further to decrease tariffs and made significant progress on a number of non-tariff issues (e.g. intellectual
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Between 1985 and 1995 the total annual flow of FDI from all countries increased nearly six fold to $135 billion, a growth rate in the world trade The major investors has been U.S, Japanese, and Western European Companies investing in Europe, Asia, (particularly in China, and India). For example, Japanese auto companies have been investing rapidly in Asian, European, and U.S auto assembly operations.
This also shows that firms around the globe are finding their home markets under attack from Foreign competitors. For example, in Japan, Kodak has taken market share from Fuji recent years. In the United States, Japanese firms have taken away market share from General motors, and Chrysler and in Western Europe where the once –dominant Dutch company Philips has seen its market share taken by Japan’s JVC, Matsushita and Sony.
The growing integration into a single huge market place is increasing the intensity of competition in a wide range of manufacturing and service industries.
These trends facilitate both the globalization of markets and globalization of production. The lowering trade and investment barriers also allows firms to base individual production activities at the optimal location for that activity, and serving the world market from that location. Thus, a firm might design a product in one country, produce component parts in two another country, assemble the product in yet another country, and then export the finished product around the

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