Dipole-Induced Dipole Attraction Essay

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Register to read the introduction… Since it is non-polar, the arrangement of e- is symmetrical on the average

• Interaction between a _____ molecule
& ________ molecule
+

neutral

-

The nonpolar is polarized by the polar molecule polarized
+

+

-

-

• When these e- revolve around the nucleus, the e- density might be higher at one end than the other & cause a temporary dipole
Electron cloud δ+ dipole – dipole attraction

• The positive end of the temporary dipole will distort the e- cloud of the neighboring atoms giving rise to induced dipoles temporary dipole then attract one another δ- δ+

δ-

δ+
…show more content…
Hydrogen Fluoride (HF)

Hydrogen Bond
• A special type of permanent dipole – permanent dipole attraction between a H atom, which is bonded to:

δ– δ+ (a) a small & highly electronegative atom
(O, N or F) of a neighbouring molecule
(b) a lone pair of electrons of another very electronegative atom

δ–
••

δ+

δ+

••

δ+

δ+ δ– δ+

δ–

δ+

If 2 molecules of HF are close to another, the H atom of 1 molecule will be attracted to the F atom of another molecule
Electrostatic attraction between the partial
+ve charge on the H atom & the partial – ve charge on F atom

Hydrogen Bonding in
Ammonia (NH3) δ+ δ+

δ–

Bond Properties





Bond Polarity
Bond Order
Bond Length
Bond Energy

• In NH3 molecule, the N atom has 1 lone pair of electrons
• Each NH3 molecule can form 1 hydrogen bond Bond Polarity
• Polar bond in polar molecules – the bond between the two atoms has a partial +ve end & a partial -ve end (dipole moment)
• The unequal _______ of electrons leads to:
a) a partial -ve charge on the more electronegative element (δ −)
b) a partial +ve charge on the less electronegative element (δ +)
• A covalent molecule is polar if the covalent bond is

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