Difference Between Language And Cohesion

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The word text is used in linguistics to refer to any passage, spoken or written, of whatever length, that does from a unified whole. To make a coherent text, it must contain cohesive ties. A text has texture, and this is what distinguishes it from something that is not a text. (Halliday and Hassan, 1976, p.1-2). Cohesion is found on many types of discourse (Tanskanen, 2006, p.2).
According to Halliday and Hassan(1976) the concept of cohesion is A semantic one; it refers to relations of meaning that exist within the text, and that define it as a text. Cohesion occurs where the interpretation of some element in the discourse is dependent on that of another. The one presupposes the
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The term repetition is used in many studies instead of reiteration. This relation involves the repetition of a lexical item (synonymic expression, generalization, specification, co-specification; contrast is also a special case of reiteration). Reiteration is considered to be easier than collocation for both language users and language analysts. Its function is also clearer than that of collocation. The actual analyses in which the use of reiteration and collocation would be systematically compared are quite difficult to find. (Tanskanen, 2006, p.12). Reiteration is consisted of many subclasses; synonymy is from them. Some texts employ a different cohesive device, they use synonym. A synonym is a word that has the same meaning as another word. It is not easy to find two words have exactly the same meaning. (Salkie, 1995, p.9) Another way of linking words in a text and creating coherence is to refer back to a word by using what is called a superordinate term. For example, the word red is a type of colour. The general word is called the superordinate, and the more specific is called a hyponym. (Salkie, 1995, p.15) Other relationship between words can also be used as cohesive devices. One such relationship is when two words or phrases are opposite in meaning. For example, words male and female are opposites. Using the two words near each other obviously enables the writer to express a contrast, but it also contributes to the cohesion of …show more content…
By general comparison is meant comparison that is simply in terms of likeness and unlikeness, without respect to any particular property: two things may be the same, similar or different. General comparison is expressed by a certain class of adjectives and adverbs. Particular comparison means comparison that is in respect of quantity or equality. It is also expressed by means of adjectives or adverbs; not of a special class, but ordinary adjectives and adverbs in some comparative form. (Halliday and Hassan, 1976, p.76-77). Many writers considered ellipsis and substitution the same process. According to Halliday and Hassan, ellipsis can be treated as a form of substitution in which the item is replaced by nothing. Substitution makes the text one unit and avoids repetition. Substitution differs from reference in the point of creating cohesive relations within the text in some way semantically or grammatically. Substitution is divided into three types: nominal, verbal and clausal substitution. ( Anastasia Tsareva, 2010, p.16-18). Nominal substitution: the substitute one/ones always functions as head of a nominal group, and can substitute only for an item which is itself head of a nominal group. ( Halliday and Hassan, 1976,

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