Depression And Its Effects On Depression Essay

778 Words Sep 15th, 2016 4 Pages
Depression is one of the major psychiatric diseases. It may be considered as the disease of the modern era. Depression has high prevalence worldwide with approximately 350 million people worldwide suffer from depression (WHO, 2012). This makes depression a major concern to the personal and economic welfare. All antidepressants have been developed based on the monoaminergic deficit hypothesis of depression. These antidepressants immediately increase synaptic concentrations of norepinephrine and/or serotonin. Importantly, a latency period of several weeks elapses before the therapeutic effects of antidepressants are obtained. This discrepancy implies that other mechanisms beyond monoaminergic systems are involved in the treatment of depression. However, the vast majority of patient with depression fails to show full remission with the use of available antidepressants. (Rush et al., 2006).
Exposure to external stressors is widely acknowledged as a predisposing and precipitating factor of depression, and an increasing body of evidence presented over years has shown that both depression and chronic stressors have been associated with activation of innate inflammatory/immune response (Garcia-Bueno et al., 2008; Miller et al., 2009). The brain monitors peripheral immune responses by several means acting in parallel (Dantzer et al., 2008): some involve locally produced cytokines or pro-inflammatory cytokine transporters at the BBB and cells surrounding the peri-vascular space; in…

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