Delinquency: A Longitudinal Test Of Labeling Theory: Critical Analysis

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An individual 's sense of self develops through interactions with others (Brym and Lie 2015:15). If interactions with students are encouraging, this creates a positive environment with a stable growth of academic skills, and maturity. However, if the interaction is negative this can lead to the student questioning who they are, what they believe in and their skills. As discussed in “Teacher Disapproval, Delinquent Peers, and Self-Reported Delinquency: A Longitudinal Test of Labeling Theory” by Mike S. Adams and T. David Evans explains how labelling has a connection and is a contributor to delinquency. This peer review examins the teachers who gave negative labels and how it affects delinquency, students, and relationships that are formed because …show more content…
The second wave questioned the past participants during the same time next year about the same questions as last year. These questions were about “age, race, sex” (Adams, Mike and T. David Evans. 1996) other delinquent acts, and the answers were from never to two times a day. Table one shows; prior delinquency (PRIOR), urbanicity (URBAN), the family structure being intact or another situation (BROKHM), labelling (TLABEL) certain labels teachers gave delinquents, associations with delinquent peers (DPASN). Table on expresses how much time peers spent together and did delinquent acts (Adams, Mike and T. David Evans. 1996). This research proved that people who are older, living in urban areas and gender are all factors of delinquency (Adams, Mike and T. David Evans 1996). However, age, urbanicity and teacher labelling were not significant factors for delinquency, but were significant factors to peer delinquency (Adams, Mike and T. David Evans. 1996). The result of table 1 indicates that race and family structure are unimportant, but labeling which is indirect to forming delinquent behavior …show more content…
The type of language teachers use can be constructive or critical; when a teacher reads a student’s essay marking where corrections are a necessary this is constructive, but when feedback becomes critical it is discouraging. In “A Cultural Analysis of the Achievement Gap Discourse: Challenging the Language and Labels used in the work of School Reform” by Roderick L. Carey criticizes the labels and language used towards the achievement gap discourse. This peer review argues for schools to reshape discussions and thoughts about school education for students of color and low-income to improve the achievement gap discourse (Carey 2014 444). However, Discourse means language and other semiotic tools used by social context, the broad cultural and ideological processes (Carey 443). The definition of achievement gap discourse is the discussion of the academic success and failures of low-income also coloured students (Carey 441). This article observes the achievement gap discourse and focuses on how teachers assume certain students will do poorly. Consequently, this forms, terminology like under performing, adequate yearly progress, below basic (Carey 2014 443). These words serve as labels towards students decreasing growth, victimizing and shaping interactions of students. Careys argument analysis the achievement gap discourse and the terminology used as labels for students and the blame

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