Critical Incident Stress Management Essay

2012 Words 9 Pages
The purpose of this literature review is to review the effectiveness of Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM or CISD) system as described by authors such as Everly and Mitchell (1999). The review specifically looks at Police Officers who have been involved in Officer Involved Shooting (OIS).
When examining CISD is simply psychological first-aid done in a peer-to peer group typically within the first 24 to 72 hours of an incident. This time frame is the most intense time in a post-shooting incident. To understand what CISD is you have to understand some terms. First there has to be a “Crisis”. Is described as an acute emotional reaction to a powerful stimulus. For this literature review I will be focusing on seconded there is “Crisis Intervention”
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Contributors report disruptions in their personal relationships outside work, as well as more frequent health problems. The stress alone could injure the human body as well as the mind. Yet, its necessity understood traumatic insaneness does play a big factor in the above consequences there is other factors must be taken into account. Those factors include cumulative stress for illnesses such as heart disease and high blood pressure. This leads to loss of sleep, anxiety or even hostility. The National Academy in Quantico, Virginia implements SMILE Stress Management in Law Enforcement training to its cadets to lower the effects of stress on the human body.
Military historian Lt. Col. Dave Grossman recognized five stages that an individual goes through after killing another human being in combat. The five stages are concern about the killing, the actual kill, exhilaration, remorse, and rationalization/acceptance.
1. Concern about a killing: this is a fear about the possibility of an ensuing gunfight with a
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“An untrained officer’s response to a crisis will result in strong unrestrained emotions and fragile control techniques. The officer will be overwhelmed from the critical incident. Yet, if the officer has received, proper training to prepare him mentally and physically they will be better equipped to handle the stress”. (Remsberg 1986) “The failure to address critical incidents and stressful events, sometimes over the course of their entire professional careers, creates a cumulative effect that places many LEOs at risk for stress-related disorders (e.g., poor mental health, alcohol and substance abuse)” (Levenson 2007).
The Mitchell Model is used by many police agencies throughout the United States. Jeffrey T. Mitchell, Ph.D. after police officers, first introduced this model in 1974 and firefighters were distressed by a traumatic and often time gruesome event. The first article CISD appeared in 1983 in the Journal of Emergency Medical Services. Nevertheless, the objectives of the debriefings include: mitigation of the trauma, facilitating of the recovery proses of adaptive functions in psychologically healthy people, and identify people who might benefit from additional mental

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