Diabetes Mellitus Essay

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1.0 Introduction – What is diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disorder of chronic hyperglycaemia due to insulin deficiency or resistance and in some cases both which affects people of all ages. The chronic hyperglycaemia causes a range of macro- and microvascular complications. Macrovascular damage leads to increased prevalence of heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease whereas microvascular complications can cause diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy(1). Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has rapidly increased as a consequence of obesity, lack of exercise and an ageing population and estimates show that this “diabetes epidemic” will continue. In 2008, the international diabetes federation estimate that 246 million adults had DM worldwide and this number was likely to reach 380 million by 2025(2). Due to this increasing pervasiveness, the World Health Organisation has updated its estimates for the prevalence of DM for the year 2025 in the USA from 21.9 million to 30.3(3)(4). The global death percentage due to DM has increased from 5% in 2000 to 6.8% in 2010(5)(6). This shows the importance of developing an effective treatment.
There are 2 distinct types of DM, type 1 and type 2, with type 2 DM being the more
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However, abnormally elevated blood glucose will exert a high osmotic pressure in the extracellular fluid resulting in cellular dehydration. High blood glucose will also cause loss of glucose in urine which results in osmotic diuresis further draining the body’s fluids and electrolytes. In addition, long term hyperglycaemia damages the vasculature resulting in the micro and macrovascular complication observed in type 2 DM(11). We have discussed the importance of glucose regulation but how is it

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