Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

1933 Words 8 Pages
1.0 Introduction – What is diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is a progressive disorder of chronic hyperglycaemia due to insulin deficiency or resistance and in some cases both which affects people of all ages. The chronic hyperglycaemia causes a range of macro- and microvascular complications. Macrovascular damage leads to increased prevalence of heart disease, stroke and peripheral vascular disease whereas microvascular complications can cause diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy(1). Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) has rapidly increased as a consequence of obesity, lack of exercise and an ageing population and estimates show that this “diabetes epidemic” will continue. In 2008, the international
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However, abnormally elevated blood glucose will exert a high osmotic pressure in the extracellular fluid resulting in cellular dehydration. High blood glucose will also cause loss of glucose in urine which results in osmotic diuresis further draining the body’s fluids and electrolytes. In addition, long term hyperglycaemia damages the vasculature resulting in the micro and macrovascular complication observed in type 2 DM(11). We have discussed the importance of glucose regulation but how is it …show more content…
Benefits of good glycaemic control have been emphasised by landmark trials such as the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) and the Diabetes control and Complications Trial (DCCT). Both of these trials show that improved glycaemic control will delay the onset of microvascular complications associated with DM; neuropathy, retinopathy and nephropathy, however beneficial effects on macrovascular complications were insufficient(14–16). Furthermore, according to a more recent (ADVANCE) trial, intensive glucose control lead to a reduction in microvascular complications (9.4% vs 10.9% in the standard control). However, once again no major effects were observed on macrovascular complications(17). Early diagnosis is key to effective glucose control because initially the metabolic abnormalities are much less severe and lower severity at time of initial treatment is correlated with less long-term complications(18).In addition to drug therapy, glucose control requires lifestyle changes. In this review I will discuss these lifestyle changes as well as some current and emerging pharmaceutical therapies for the treatment of type 2

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