Nursing Case Study For Diabetes

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Carol is a 17-year-old patient who has been admitted to hospital. She has previously been diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes, and has been suffering from this since the age of 7. Carol is 6 weeks pregnant, and is showing signs of dehydration, high blood glucose, weight loss and changes in mood. It is important to understand the underlying cause of Carol’s symptoms to eliminate any problems in both her babies and her own health. This can be done through critically analysing the pathophysiology of her overall condition and her signs and symptoms. It is also important to understand any potential effects on the developing foetus in order to help prevent any complication during her pregnancy. Understanding the pathophysiology of both her condition …show more content…
Hyperglycaemia is a raised serum glucose level. The main cause of hyperglycaemia in type 1 Diabetes in an insufficiency of insulin. There is also an increase in conterregulatory hormone levels; Glucagon, cortisol, catecholamines, and growth hormone. Insulin deficiency causes hyperglycaemia, as glucose can no longer be utilised in insulin-dependent tissues such as muscle and adipose tissue. This means the body has to use energy from fatty acids in adipose tissue. The fatty acids travel to the liver and are converted to ketoacids, in turn potentially causing ketoacidosis, which can be life …show more content…
The kidneys osmatic pressure builds up and it gets so high that water can no longer be absorbed back into the bloodstream. Due to this the water starts to be absorbed out of the bloodstream, causing excessive thirst and dehydration. Dehydration caused by this malfunction can in turn cause ketoacidosis, which causes naturally occurring acids to build up in the body and can lead to coma, organ failure, or even death. Polyuria is usually caused by a knock on effect of the polydipsia. High blood glucose levels cause polydipsia, when the sugar can’t be reabsorbed; excess glucose from the blood ends up in the urine, where it draws out more water, causing larger volumes of urine. Unlike polyuria, and polydipsia, polyphagia occurs when the blood glucose is either high or low. When too little glucose is in the blood the body starts to crave more glucose, hence an increase in appetite. This is one explanation of polyphagia, but it can also occur when excess glucose is in the urine (as explained above). The body is urinating out glucose, and therefore it is being expelled and it starts to crave more, increasing appetite. All the above symptoms are linked as they are all caused by a high blood glucose level, and malfunction of the kidneys. Another two symptoms that are important to explain are weight loss, and mood

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