Alfred Adler's Birth Order Theory

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1.3.1 Birth Order Theory
According to Alfred Adler’s birth order theory proposed that the predetermine order of birth is attributed to the different characteristics due to the position of the child and the family environment, he also suggested that the characteristics were responsible to the children for their future lifetimes (Ha & Tam, 2011). The children have to learn about their position by understanding their behavior. The first born child holds the dominant position in the family. They are perceived to be more conscientious than their younger siblings (Paulhus, Trapnell, & Chen, 1999). For the youngest sibling, they are believed to be the most creative, emotional, extraverted, disobedient, irresponsible and talkative (Herrera, 2003). The later born children tend to be perceived as acting more sociable in peer situations then first children, these later born children have had invaluable experiences with their siblings and more opportunity to develop social skills from peer
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Research in the late twentieth century and early twenty-first century shows considerably more influence, contributing to career choice, intelligence and success in adulthood (Franz, 2002). Birth order influences how a child is treated by parents and other siblings and how that child feels about it. Birth spacing, gender and physical attributes affect personality formation and the interpretation of birth order and behavior. These factors affect how parents treat children and how each child is viewed by the other siblings (Franz, 2002). Birth spacing changes the dynamics of birth order. If there is a gap of five or more years between children, each child may be treated as an only child or as a firstborn. If there is a large gap between groups of children in a large family, each group may be treated as a separate birth order family (Franz,

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