CHANGES IN THE STRUCTURE OF EMPLOYMENT IN RURAL AREAS
K. Hanumantha Rao Objectives
(i) To study the emerging structural characteristics of the labour market in rural areas; (ii) To examine the levels of and trends in employment and unemployment in the last three decades; (iii) To understand the inter-relationships among economic growth-employment/unemployment and wages, and (iv) To suggest policy and programme interventions on the basis of (i) to (iii).
The reference period of the study covering almost 25 years (1971 to 1993-94) include a few epochs of agricultural and rural development viz., green revolution and post-green revolution phases, era of poverty alleviation programmes and the early phase of die new
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during the 80s and in particular among poverty stricken states like Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. The gender disparities in daily earnings were conspicuous and in several states these varied between Rs 5 and Rs 6. The trends in employment levels during the reference period indicate that the employment levels for males were high and were hovering around certain levels during the green and post-green revolution periods and declined thereafter. There were low in Kerala and high in states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa and Punjab. The evidence was inadequate to infer that employment levels have been falling sharply in the transition phase of the new economic policy era. Juxtaposing the data on employment levels with the population growth, one may infer that in the late 80s and 90s the number of unemployed persons might have gone up significantly. The employment levels among females were lower than those for males. In several states, female employment levels were higher In 1993-94 than in 1987-88. As per the usual status of approach the number of employed males had gone up from over 127 millions in 1972-73 to about 166 millions in 1993-94; the corresponding figures were 71 millions and 93 millions, respectively, for females. The rate of employment of males (females) had been growing at the rate of 1.47 (1.52) per cent per annum which