• Caffeine (anhydrous), BASF, Germany, was generously donated by Dar Al Dawa Development and Investment Company. Caffeine is 1,3,7-trimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione. It is white or almost white, crystalline powder or silky crystals. It is sparingly soluble in water, freely soluble in boiling water and slightly soluble in ethanol. It is used as central nervous system stimulant (British Pharmacopoeia 2009).
• Methyl paraben was generously donated by Arab Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company. Methyl paraben is methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, prepared by the esterification of p-hydroxybenzoic acid with methanol. It occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It is odorless or almost odorless and has a slight burning taste (Rowe et al., 2009). Methyl paraben is very slightly soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol and in methanol (British Pharmacopoeia 2009). It is widely used as an antimicrobial preservative in cosmetics, food products, and pharmaceutical formulations, either alone or in combination with other parabens or with other antimicrobial agents. The parabens are effective over a wide pH range and …show more content…
Ibuprofen is (2RS)-2-[4-(2-methylpropyl) phenyl] propanoic acid. It is white or almost white, crystalline powder or colourless crystals. It is practically insoluble in water, freely soluble in acetone, in methanol and in methylene chloride. Ibuprofen is used as analgesic and anti-inflammatory (British Pharmacopoeia 2009).
• Emu oil, EMU SPIRIT, Middleborough Road, Box Hill South, Australia. According to the manufacturer, Spirit Oil of Emu contains 473 mg oleic acid, 99 mg linoleic acid and 9.2 mg linolenic acid per 1mL. It is used topically and internally to help relieve the symptoms of a wide range of inflammation based ailments. When applied topically, it also provides relief from muscular aches and aids in recovery of damaged