Behaviorism And The Learning Theory Of B. F. Skinner

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DEFINITION
Behaviorism is a learning theory that only focuses on considerately discoverable behaviors and discounts any absolute activities of the mind. Behavior theorists define learning as the attainment of new behaviour based on environmental conditions. In short, behaviourism equates learning with behaviors that can be observed and measured. The behaviourist theory believes that through a process involving imitation, rewards, and practice, infants are able to learn oral language from other human role models. Human role models in an infant’s environment provide the stimuli and rewards. (Cooter and Reutzel, 2004). Behaviorist assumes that a learner is actually passive or apathetic, reciprocate to environmental stimuli. They also believes
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One of the key figures for this theory is Burrhus Frederic Skinner commonly known as B. F. Skinner, who was an American psychologist, behaviorist, author, inventor, and social philosopher. Skinner introduced radical behaviourism that considered the philosophy behind behavior analysis. He developed the theory of operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is the use of effect to modify the existance and form of behaviour. It involve the stimulus and response that is when a stimulus is provided, a response is achieved. Meanwhile, reinforcement provided could be positive or negative. Learning takes place by reinforcement, if there is an unwanted behaviour, punishment takes its …show more content…
The experiments was done with animals and was generalized to humans. Skinner invented the operant conditioning chamber, also known as the Skinner Box to study operant conditioning. This box is a laboratory apparatus used to study animal behaviour. These types of apparatuses allow experimenters to perform studies in conditioning and training through reward/punishment mechanisms. Next, Pavlov performed and directed experiments on digestion. He did the experiment with the dogs and came up with the theory of classical conditioning. Pavlov showed the existence of the unconditioned response by presenting a dog with a bowl of food and the measuring its salivary secretions. His experiment shows that the dogs’ behavior had changed. It also involved a neutral stimulus because it produces no response. In his experiment, Pavlov used a bell as his neutral stimulus. The neutral stimulus has become a conditioned stimulus. Then, the experiment that was carried out by Watson known as “Little Albert Experiment”. The goal of the experiment was to show how principles of, at the time recently discovered, classical conditioning could be applied to condition fear of a white rat into "Little Albert", a 9-month-old boy. Watson and Rayner conditioned "Little Albert" by clanging an iron rod when a white rat was presented. This study demonstrated how emotions could become conditioned

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