# Beta Vulgaris Experiment

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Research question:
Does the temperature of a surrounding water solution influence the rate of diffusion of the red pigment betalain in Beta Vulgaris (Beetroot) measured using a colorimeter over a certain period?
Hypothesis:
A higher temperature of the surrounding water solution will cause the rate of diffusion of the red pigment in betalain in Beetroot to be faster.
The reason for this hypothesis is because when in a higher temperature, betalain molecules will gain more kinetic energy and they will vibrate more thus causing the diffusing rate from the beetroot to water to be faster than lower temperatures. This can be seen in the diagram below. If the temperature of the surrounding water solution increases, the molecules will gain more
Method for control Level of impact (1-5)
1. Diameter of beet root disc Surface area of beet root to volume ratio affects the rate of diffusion Using an 8mm borer to ensure the diameter of the beet root disc is consistent The level of impact is 5. When the diameter of the beet root cells are of the same radius, all discs would have the same surface area and thus ensuring that any changes to the level of absorbance is purely due to the temperature of distilled water
2. Length of beet root disc Surface area of beet root to volume ratio affects the rate of diffusion Using a 15cm ruler to measure out 5mm of beet root The level of impact is 5. Ensuring the length of beet root disc stays the same means that the amount of red pigment betalain is around the same amount. Therefore ensuring that any changes to the level of absorbance is purely due to the changes of temperature of distilled water
3. Volume of distilled water solution To ensure the only variable changed is temperature, the volume of distilled water solution must be fixed Using a 10cm3 measuring cylinder The level of impact is 5. If the volume of distilled water isn’t the same, quantitative data recorded will be inaccurate as the color for every cuvette will vary. For example, a solution which contained only 5cm3 of water would look darker than a solution which contained 10cm3 of water, even though they are at the same
Pour water into all five water baths and preheat it to temperatures 30, 40,50 ,60 and 70
2. To ensure the water baths are at the right temperature, place a thermometer into all water baths
3. Clear the working area and place a white tile
4. Using a 0.8cm borer, dig out a disc of beetroot and use a ruler to measure 5mm for every beetroot disc. Put the discs on the white tile.
5. Using a 10cm3 measuring cylinder, measure 10cm3 of distilled water and pour it into a test tubes. Repeat this step for the other four test tubes
6. Label the test tubes with a different temperature each
7. Place all five test tubes into the different water baths to preheat the distilled water for ten minutes.
8. Once ten minutes is up, put one 5mm beetroot disc into each of the five test tubes and wait for five minutes
9. While waiting, attach the colorimeter and onto the computer and press the 470nm button
10. Take a bit of distilled water and place it into a cuvette and place a lid onto it.
11. Place the cuvette into the colorimeter and calibrate it. Record the results
12. Once five minutes is up, take out the test tubes and place a cork onto each test tubes.
13. Shake the test tubes two to three times to ensure the solution is mixed
14. Allow the test tubes to cool down for 1 – 2