Balance of payments: The balance of payments of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of a country and the rest of the world in a particular period (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year). These transactions are made by individuals, firms and government bodies. Thus the balance of payments includes all external visible and non-visible transactions of a country during a given period, usually a year. It represents a summation of country's current demand and supply of the claims on foreign currencies and of foreign claims on its currency. These transactions include payments for the country's exports and imports of goods, services, financial capital, and financial transfers.
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Net error and omission:When all actual balance of payments entries are totalled, the resulting balance will almost inevitably show a net credit or a net debit. That balance is the result of errors and omissions in compilation of statements. Some of the errors and omissions may be related to recommendations for practical approximation to principles.In balance of payments, the standard practice is to show separately an item for net errors and omissions. Labeled by some compilers as a balancing item or statistical discrepancy, that item is intended as an offset to the overstatement or understatement of the recorded components.
Reserve assets: Reserve assets consist of those external assets that are readily available to and controlled by a country’s authorities for direct financing of international payments imbalances, for indirect regulation of the magnitude of such imbalances through intervention in foreign exchange markets to affect their currency’s exchange rate, and for other purposes. The category of reserve assets defined in the IMF Balance of Payments Manuel, Fifth Edition comprises monetary gold, special drawing rights (SDRs), reserve position in the IMF, foreign exchange assets (consisting of currency, and deposits and securities), and other claims.
Before the Bretton Woods agreement ended in 1971, most central banks used gold