Ap Biology Essay on Atp
b) First, chemiosmosis occurs across the inner membrane of the mitochondria which is called the cristae. Basically, H+ ions are pumped …show more content…
Glycolysis is a biological process in which 2 ATP, 2 pyruvate , and 2 NADH are produced. Ironically, 2 ATP are necessary to start this biological process. In the first step of glycolysis, an ATP attaches one of its phosphates to a molecule of glucose to produce glucose-6-phophate (G6P). The newly formed G6P rearranges to form a molecule named fructose-6-phosphate (F6P). Another molecule of ATP is required for the next step, which adds another phosphate group to produce fructose 1,6-biphosphate. Eventually, the reaction produces the 2 ATP, 2 pyruvate, and 2 NADH that are essential for all life processes.
d) An energy pyramid’s shape shows how the amount of useful energy that enters each level — chemical energy in the form of food — decreases as it is used by the organisms in that level. How does this happen? Recall that cell respiration “burns” food to release its energy, and in doing so, produces ATP, which carries some of the energy as well as heat, which carries the rest. ATP is then used to fuel countless life processes. The consequence is that even though a lot of energy may be taken in at any level, the energy that ends up being stored there – which is the food available to the next level — is far less. Scientists have calculated that an average of 90% of the energy entering each step of the food chain is “lost” this way (although the total amount in the system remains