Anatomy Essay

888 Words Oct 1st, 2013 4 Pages
Joints and Movements
The Joints
Definition: A joint (articulation) is point of contact between bones or between bone and cartilage.
Joint Classifications
Joints are classified by: * The degree of movement they allow * The structure of the joint
The three types of joints that we will look at are: 1. Fibrous joints 2. Cartilaginous joints 3. Synovial joints
Fibrous Joints
These joints are also called "fixed" or "immoveable" joints, because they do not move. These joints have no joint cavity and are connected via fibrous connective tissue. The skull bones are connected by fibrous joints.

Cartilaginous Joints
These joints also have no joint cavity and the bones are connected tightly to each other with
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* Ball and socket - allows movement around 3 axes - flexion / extension, abduction / adduction and rotation, eg shoulder, hip. * Pivot - a ring of bone and ligament surrounds the surface of the other bone - movement in one plane, primarily rotation eg between the atlas and axis (ie the cervical vertebrae numbers 1 and 2) and the radius and ulna. * Gliding - Flat bone surfaces allow side to side and backwards and forwards movements eg between carpals, tarsals, between the sternum and the clavicle (sterno-clavicular) and the scapula and the clavicle. * Condyloid - Not on syllabus * Saddle joints - eg thumb Notes:
Ligaments connect bone to bone - ligament - tough regularly arranged connective tissue, slightly elastic.
Tendons connect muscle to bone - tendon - non-elastic, flexible, connective tissue which allows the muscle to pull on the bone to create a movement. The tendon at the none moving end of a muscle is called the tendon of origin, at the moving end of a muscle it is called the tendon of insertion.
Exercise - long term effects on joints: 1. Stronger and denser bone 2. Denser cartilage 3. Ligaments stronger and will resist stretching 4. Tendons will become more flexible, and will form more attachments between the bone and the muscle 5. Increased supply of synovial fluid.
Joint Movements Anatomical PositionThe anatomical position is the

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