Anatomy and Physiology Comprehensive Final Essay

2056 Words Apr 30th, 2013 9 Pages
The 2000-Meter Row: A Case in Homeostasis
Adapted from the National Center for Case Study Teaching in Science* by Nathan Strong

At the start 1. Recall that Jim's heart and respiratory rate are increased, he was sweating and that his mouth was dry before the raise began. Explain what is happening to his autonomic nervous system (including which division is the most active) and specify exactly how those ANS responses are creating the symptoms noted. What changes do you think are occurring in the digestive and urinary systems at this time? (8 points)

In his autonomic nervous system, the sympathetic division was the most active before and during the race because it is what prepares your body for extra somatic activity. It activated
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However, during glycolysis, there is soon more pyruvic acid produced then can be used at the time. That pyruvic acid gets converted to lactic acid, which is an organ acid that is able to dissociate in body fluids. The lactic acid breaks up into hydrogen ions and negatively charged lactate ions that lowers intracellular pH and causes a burning sensation in his muscles.

5. Trace the sensation of pain in Jim’s left Quadriceps muscle from the receptor to perception in the brain. Be sure to include the nerve and all intermediate structures involved in relaying this sensation. (8 points)

When Jim felt a pain sensation in his Quadriceps muscle, it began with the local nociceptors being activated. A signal was then transmitted from his nociceptor neurons, through the dorsal root ganglia where the cell bodies are located. Then, the signal is processed through the Central Nervous System, reaching the interneurons and being relayed to the brain through the lateral spinothalamic tract. The lateral spinothalamic tract and interneurons end in the ventral nuclei of the thalamus, where third-order neurons process and relay the painful sensation to the primary sensory cortex.

6. Since the end of the first minute, Jim has decreased the demands his muscles are making. What metabolic process is now providing most of the energy for his muscles? What muscle protein has been storing Oxygen for this activity? (6 points)

Now that Jim has decreased the

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