Anatomical Structure Of The Knee
Cartilage is not able to repair itself because it has almost no blood vessels flowing through it, whereas bone, compared to the cartilage, is full of blood vessels (Sanville, Nicholson & Driscoll, 1994). The amount of blood circulating through is what makes the self repairing process run smoothly.
When describing the knee, there are a few anatomical terms that doctors refer to in order to understand the structure. These terms are anterior, posterior, medial and lateral. Anterior refers to the front of the knee, posterior to the back of the knee and the back of the kneecap, medial is the side closest to the other knee and lateral is the side farthest from the other knee also referred to the outside of the knee (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013). These are the terms most commonly associated with the …show more content…
The four bones that make up the knee are the patella, tibia, fibula and femur as shown in Figure 2. The patella is commonly known as the knee cap. This is a flat, triangular sesamoid bone that is enclosed in the quadriceps tendon. The anterior thigh muscles are secured to the tibia by the patella. The function of the patella is to relieve the friction between the bones and muscle when the knee is flexed (in a bent position) or extended (in a straightened position). Its job is to protect the knee joint on the anterior side and improves the flexibility of the thigh muscles that are tied into the knee (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013). The tibia is the bone that runs from the knee to the ankle and is most commonly referred to as the shin bone. It is the second largest bone in the body. This is the bone that receives the weight from the femur; it is then translated to the foot. The top of the tibia is made up of two plateaus and the tibial tubercle. There are two crescent-shaped menisci that are shock-absorbing and help stabilize the knee (Marieb & Hoehn, 2013). The next bone that is associated with the knee is the fibula. This is the long, thin bone that runs alongside the tibia from the knee to the ankle and is the lower half of the leg. The distal part to this bone is called the lateral malleolus and the proximal end is its head. There are also many muscles that originate from this