An Experiment Of An Organic Substance Essay
In this experiment, the goal was to isolate an organic substance. Using extraction, a basic, acidic, and neutral substance was expected to be extracted from the original unknown compound.
Extraction is a process that allows the separation of substances that were previously mixed together through the use of a solvent1. This can be useful in situations where the substance has both the desired product and undesired byproducts in it. In order for extraction to work, the solvent must be able to target only one part of the substance. The solvent used is always immiscible so that it forms two separate layers2.
Extraction is performed with the use of a separatory funnel. This funnel is designed to have one open side and one side that can be opened and closed using the stopcock3. A stopper can also be inserted into the top of the separatory funnel. When used in extraction, the compound and solvent are poured in from the top opening. To fully mix the two together and create equilibrium, a stopper is inserted in the top of the separatory funnel and it is carefully shaken3. Figure 1: Full Diagram of the Separatory Funnel4
Often times when using the separatory funnel it is important to relieve pressure build up by tilting the liquid away from the stopcock and opening the stopcock briefly.3 This is especially true when using volatile solvents. Pressure rising inside the separatory funnel can occur when the vapor pressure is attempting to reach equilibrium3.