Biotechnology: Genetically Modified Organisms

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Genetically Modified Organisms (a.k.a GMOs) is a term used to represent organisms and crops created using biotechnology and genetic engineering. It involves generating a class of organisms by integrating genetic information from different species using recombinant DNA biotechnology.

The first successful achievement in genetic engineering experiments using plants dates to the 1980 's1, 2, 3, where biotechnology introduced major approval of bacteria used to produce insulin for manufacturing in North America2. By the 90 's, transgenic foods in production included: corn1, tomatoes2, potatoes2, canola2, squash2, soybean2, 3, maize2, 3, and cotton2, 3.

First, a geneticist isolates a selected gene for advantageous traits using series of promoters
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These methods integrate new DNA to an organism and directly manipulate genes. Unlike traditional breeding², genetic engineering utilizes modern tools such as molecular cloning and transformation to directly alter the structure of DNA and characteristics of target genes.

The final outcome indicates the presence of new recombinant DNA, which consequentially develops new proteins. With the presence of these new protein, series of new enzymes are produced leading to changes in metabolic paths. The two main ways used are for determining synthesized DNA and profiling new proteins expressed. Additionally, these procedures are subjected to compound target molecule analysis in order to determine what gene should be altered to gain the desired
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Through this, producers are able to create plants and animals with desirable traits for production benefits.

Some of the direct advantages of genetically modification in crops promote: insect-resistance1, 2, herbicide-tolerance1, 2, tolerance to intense climate changes1, 2, disease-resistance1, drought and salinity tolerance1, 3, improved nutrition1, 2, 3, pharmaceuticals1, 3, phytoremediation1 which improves mortality rates and life expectance in plants2,3. In these ways, it may lead to improvement of crop properties during nutrition storage and amino acid processing. The increasingly important role of genetic engineering has become instilled in production and undergoes continuous debate as a result.
Resistance and Tolerance to Insects, Herbicide, and Intense Environmental

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