Adenocarcinoma Essay

1467 Words 6 Pages
Adenocarcinoma is derived from ‘adeno’, which means gland, and ‘carcino’ for cancer. It can form in many parts of the body, but each tumor is unique to its location. As a respiratory cancer adenocarcinoma is found in the mucus-secreting cells on the outer part of the lungs. It is a part of a group of lung cancers known as non-small cell lung cancers, which are categorized together because of similar prognosis and treatment, rather than similar cellular shape like other diseases.
Most cases of lung cancer are caused by inhaling carcinogens into the lungs, the biggest contributor being cigarette smoke. According to Cancer Research UK, “It causes more than eight out of ten cases, including a small proportion caused by exposure to secondhand smoke
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When the genetic coding in DNA corrupts, cells can become cancerous. “Cancers can be caused by DNA changes that turn on oncogenes or turn off tumor suppressor genes.” according to cancer.org. Oncogenes are involved in the growth and division of cells. When these are turned on in excess, cells begin to grow rapidly. They become even more out of control when tumor suppressor genes, which are meant to kill these cells before they become a tumor, are also corrupted. These corruptions may be inherited from parents.
All cancerous tumors are classified by stages that group tumors in the progression of tumor growth to show similarities in prognosis and treatment. For non-small cell lung cancers such as adenocarcinoma, the American Joint Committee on Cancer has created the TNM system. Numbers ranging from 0-4 accompany these letters to indicate severity based on several given
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This is important because the cancer usually goes to the lymph nodes before metastasizing. At the NX phase, the lymph nodes have not been assessed for presence of cancerous cells. This is a likely categorization with a TX or T0 classification, because there is no reason to check for a tumor having spread to the lymph nodes if there is no tumor. At N0, there is no spread to the lymph nodes. N1 signifies the tumor affects lymph nodes on the same side of the lung as itself. N2 tumors spread to the mediastinum and carina, and N3 the lymph nodes by the collar bones or on the other side of the lung than the primary tumor.
The M tells if the tumor has metastasized. Metastasis is when a tumor spreads to other organs in the body. Metastasis is categorized as either M0, M1a or M1b. M0 means that the tumor has not metastasized to the opposite lung, distant lymph nodes, or any other organs or tissues. M1a means that the tumor has either spread to the other lung, the fluid around the lung, or the fluid around the heart. Tumors classified as M1b have spread to lymph nodes other than those near the respiratory system, or other

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