Neoplasm Essay

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Breast cancer and neoplasm begin with a damaged part of a cell’s DNA that continues to get transcribed and replicated. According to the National Cancer Institute, 12% of woman will develop breast cancer in their lifetime (2015). The rate of diagnoses of breast cancer has leveled off in this past decade, and the mortality rate has decreased recently. However, it remains the second leading cause of death in women, second to lung cancer (National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health, 2015). Men can also get breast cancer. Their rate of incidence is 1% of all breast cancer and neoplasm (McCance and Huether, 2014). This being said breast disease is benign or metastatic. Benign neoplasms are self-contained and localized. They do …show more content…
A form of this type of cancer is called carcinoma in situ. This means, cancer resides in the epithelium, but has not progressed to the basement membrane or surrounding tissues. This type of cancer is very unpredictable; it can take one of three courses: remain stable for an extended period of time, proceed to metastatic cancer, or revert back and disappear (Pennery, Speechley, and Rosenfield, 2009). Breast cancer can be in the lobes of the breast, called lobular carcinoma, or they can be in the ducts; called ductal carcinoma. The risk factors associated with breast cancer in women include increasing age, personal history of benign or metastatic cancers, early menstruation, and late menopause; not having children or having them after the age of 30. Oral contraceptives, family history of breast cancer, inherited BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations, and obesity after menopause increase the risk of breast cancer. Men are susceptible to breast cancer as well. Male risks include obesity, Klinefelter syndrome, and excess breast …show more content…
A woman that inherits a BRCA1 mutation is 55-65% more likely to obtain breast cancer. An inherited BRCA 2 gene has an associated risk of 45%. These gene mutations increase the risk of ovarian cancer by 39% for BRCA1 and 11-17% BRCA2 (NCI, 2015). This gene mutation does not affect woman alone; in males, the associated risk is 6% for those that inherit the BRCA2 gene (McCance and Huether, 2014). When functioning normally, the BRCA genes produce tumor suppressor proteins that contribute to Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) repair. When this gene is mutated, the DNA is not repaired and ultimately produces dysfunctional cells that lead to

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