A Research Study On Cell Detection Essay

708 Words Oct 15th, 2015 3 Pages
Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are also called “Trojan Horse” peptides or protein transduction domains (PTDs), or membrane-permeable peptides (MPPs). CPPs are a class of diverse peptides, typically consisting of 5-30 amino acids, which are characterized by their ability to cross the cell membrane. The first CPP was discovered independently by two different research groups in 1988, when it was observed that the trans-activating transcriptional activator (TAT) protein of HIV-1 could cross the cell membrane and translocate into the nucleus [52,53]. After a few years, the third helix of Drosophila Antennapedia homeodomain protein was shown to be internalized by the cells in culture [54,55]. These discoveries were followed by the identification of minimal TAT peptide sequence (47YGRKKRRQRRR57) essential for cellular entry [56]. Since then, several other proteins and peptides capable of cell membrane translocation have been discovered, and the list of CPPs has been extended rapidly. These include VP22, model amphipathic peptide (MAP), transportan, Pep-1, synthetic polyarginines, and signal sequence-based peptides [57-59].
Over the past few years, there has been an increased application of CPPs for the delivery of diverse therapeutic cargoes such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, liposomes, nanoparticles, micelles, and small molecule drugs across the cell membrane [47,57,60-62]. CPP-mediated transport offers several potential benefits over traditional techniques, including…

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