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269 Cards in this Set

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This systems protects a person by detecting changes in the environment?
The sensory system
An environment change becomes a?
Stimulus
The stimulus from the environment initiates a nerve ____?
Impulse
The external stimulus from sensory organs travel toward the CNS by way of what?
Afferent neuron, ascending tract
A stimulus becomes a sensation only when the cerebral cortex ________the nerve impulse it generates?
Interprets
Types of stimulus are?
Internal (visceral)
External (skeletal, integumentary, Ears, nose, eyes)
Type of stimulus that arrive from the external and are detected at or near the body surface?
External
Type of stimulus that originates internally to maintain homeostasis?
Internal (visceral)
The part of the nervous system that detects a stimulus?
Sensory receptor
A free dendrite of a sensory neuron, such as the receptors for pain is what type receptor?
Sensory
Type of Receptor? A modified ending, or end-organ, on the dendrite of an afferent neuron, such as those for touch and temperature?
Sensory
Type of receptor? A specialized cell associated with an afferent neuron, such as the rods and cones of the retina of the eye and the receptors in the other special sense organs?
Sensory
Receptors can be classified according to the type of _________ to which they respond?
Stimulus
Type of Sensory receptor such as the receptors for taste and smell, detect chemicals in solution?
Chemoreceptors
Type of Sensory receptor located in the retina of the eye, responds to light?
Photoreceptors
Type of Sensory receptor that detect change in temperature, many of these located in skin?
Thermoreceptors
Type of Sensory receptor that respond to movement such as stretch, pressure, or vibrations?
Mechanoreceptors
Any receptor must recieve a stimulus of adequate intensity called?
Threshold stimulus (must meet a certain level to activate sensory recpetors)
Type of sense that is localized in a special sense organ?
Special sense
Type of sense that is widely distributed throughout the body?
Generalized sense
Special senses include what senses?
Vision, hearing, equilibrium, taste, smell
General senses include what senses?
Pressure, temperature, pain, and touch, also sense of position (muscles, joints, tendons)
What structures protect the eye?
Skull bones, eyelids, eyelashes, eyebrow, conjuctiva (covers sclera, lacrimal glands, nasolacrimal duct.
The upper and lower eyelids anatomical name?
Superior Palpabrea levator, Inferior Palpabrea levator
Cells within the _______produce mucus that aids in lubricating the eye?
Conjunctiva
Tears from the lacrimal glands lubricate the eye and contain an ________that protects against infection?
Enzyme
The eyeball has three coats or tunics, what are they?
Sclera, Choroid, retina
Type tunic that is made of tough connective tissue, also referred to the "white of the eye"?
Sclera
Appears white because of the collagen it contains and has no blood vessel to add color?
Sclera
Tunic composed of a delicate network of connective tissue interlaced with many blood vessels?
Choroid
Tunic that contains dark brown pigment, prevents incoming light rays from scattering and reflecting the inner surface of the eye?
Choroid
The tunic that is the actual receptor layer of the eye?
Retina
Tunic contains light-sensitive cells known as rods and cones?
Retina
Generate the nerve impulses associated with vision?
Rods and cones
The process which is the bending of light rays as they pass from one substance to another substance of different density?
Refraction
Because of this light from a very large area can be focused on a very small area of the retina?
Refraction
An anterior continuation of the sclera, but it is transparent, colorless, whereas the rest of sclera is opaque and white?
Cornea
Referred to as "the window of the eye"?
Cornea
Bulges forward slightly and is the main refracting structure of the eye?
Cornea
Has no blood vessels, is nourished by the fluid that constantly wash over it?
Cornea
A watery fluid that fills much of the eyeball anterior to the lens, helps maintain the slight forward curve of the cornea?
Aqueous Humor
Constantly produce and drained from the eye?
Aqueous Humor
Technically called the "CRYSTALLINE LENS"?
Lens
A clear, circular structure made of a firm elastic material?
Lens
Has two bulging surfaces and is considered biconvex?
Lens
Important in light refraction because it is elastic and its thickness can be adjusted to focus light for near or far vision?
Lens
A soft jelly like substance that fill the entire space posterior to the lens?
Vitreous Body
Important in maintaining the shape of the eyeball as well as in aiding in refraction?
Vitreous Body
What are the structures that refract light as it passes through the eye?
Cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous body
The receptor cells of the eye, named for their shape?
Rods and cones
Part of the retina that are highly sensitive to light, thus function in dim light but do not provide a sharp image?
Rods
Are more numerous than cones and are distributed more toward the periphery (anterior portion)of the retina?
Rods
Responsible for dark adaptation, from more light to less light?
Rods
Rods are unable to differentiate what?
Color
Function in bright light, sensitive to color, and give sharp images?
Cones
Are localized at the center of the retina?
Cones
A tiny depressed area near the optic nerve is?
Fovea centralis
Point of the sharpest vision and contains a high density of cones?
Fovea centralis
The fovea is contained within a yellow spot called?
The macula lutea
An area that may show degenerative changes with age and contains the fovea?
The macula lutea
Cones have specific colors they are sensitive to, what are the colors?
Red, green, and blue light
The absence of retinal cones results in?
Color blindness
The ______ and ____ function by means of pigments that are sensitive to light?
Rods and cones
The rod pigment is known as?
rhodopsin or visual purple
What vitamin is needed to manufacture rhodopsin?
Vitamin A
A lack of Vitamin A results in?
Night Blindness
Nerve impulses from the rods and cones flow into sensory neurons that merge to form what?
The optic nerve
The optic nerve is also labelled the ?
Cranial nerve II
Impulses from the optic nerve travel to the center of the?
Occipital cortex of the brain
Two groups of muscle in the eye are?
Intrinsic and Extrinsic muscles
How many extrinsic muscles are connected with each eye?
Six (6)
Muscle of the eye Originates of the bones of the orbit and inserts?
On the surface of the sclera
The muscle in the eye are named for their?
Location
Eye muscle that pull on the eyeball in a coordinated fashion so that both eyes center on one visual field?
muscles of the eye
Process by which muscles pull on the eyeball in a coordinated fashion so that both eyes center on one visual field?
convergence
Necessary for a clear image on the retina?
convergence
Three dimensional vision or stereoscopic vision is a characteristic of?
Primates
The involuntary muscles located within the eye are known as?
Intrinsic muscles
Form two circular structures within the eye, the iris and the ciliary muscle?
Intrinsic muscles
The colored or pigmented part of the eye?
Iris
Composed of two sets of muscle fibers that the size of the central opening (pupil)?
Iris
Central opening of the iris?
Pupil
Regulates the amount of light that enters the eye?
Iris
In bright light the muscles of the iris?
Contract
The narrowing of the piris is termed?
Constriction
In dim light the radial muscles of the iris do what?
Dilate
The enlargment of the pupil is known as?
Dilation
Shaped like a flattened ring with a central hole the size of the outer edge of the iris?
Ciliary muscle
This muscle holds the lens in place by means of filaments?
Ciliary muscle
The filaments or ligaments of the ciliary muscle are called?
suspensory Ligaments
These ligaments project from the ciliary muscle to the edge of the lens around its entire circumference?
suspensory Ligaments
This intrinsic muscle of the eye controls the shape of the lens to allow for vision at near and far distances?
Ciliary muscle
This process changes the lens shape for better viewing?
Accomodation
A common cause of farsightedness in the aging process, is due to a loss of elasticity in this eye muscle?
Ciliary muscle
What is the function of the Iris?
To control the amount of light entering the eye
What is the function of the ciliary muscle?
Holds the lens in place contorting it by suspensory ligaments to accommodate near and far vision
Carries visual impulses from the retinal rods and cods to the brain?
Optice nerve
Known as the Cranial Nerve II?
Optic nerve
Carries impulses of pain, touch, and temperature from the eye and surrounding parts of the brain?
opHthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve
There are no rods and cones in the area of the optic nerve causing?
Blind spot
What is the pathway for transmitting external information from the eye to the brain?
External stimulus - outer layer - retina - rods and cones - optic nerve - thalamus-occipital of brain
The image that falls on the retina is overfracted causing the image to be?
Upside down
Which part of the brain reverses the upside down image?
visual centers of the brain
Three nerves that caryy impulses to the eyeball muscle?
Oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve, abducens nerve
Also known as cranial nerve III (3)?
Oculomotor nerve
Also known as cranial nerve V (5)?
Trochlear nerve
Also known as cranial nerve VI (6)?
Abducens nerve
The largest of the three motor nerves to the eye?
Oculomotor nerve
Supplies voluntary and involuntary motor impulses to all but two eye muscles?
Oculomotor nerve
Supplies the superior oblique extrinsic eye muscle?
Trochlear nerve
Supplies the lateral rectus extrinsic eye muscle?
Abducens nerve
What are the seven steps of vision? LICESOL (LYSOL:)
L= Light refracts
I= Iris adjusts the pupil
C=Ciliary adjusts the lens
E=Extrinsic convergence
S=Stimulates rods/cones (retina)
O=Optic nerve transmits impulse 2 brain
L=Lobe (occipital) interprets impulse
What is the cranial nerve II and what does it do?
Optic nerve, transmits impulses received from the retina (rods/cones) to the brain
The sense organ for both hearing and euqilibrium?
The ear
Outer Ear
Includes an outer projection and a canal ending at the membrane? (Ear)
An airspace containing three small bones in the ear?
Middle Ear
The most complex and contains the sensory receptors for hearing and equlibrium?
The inner ear
The portion of the ear that is visiible?
Pinna or auricle
The canal that leads from the pinna or auricle to deeper parts of the ear?
External auditory canal or meatus (audi=sound, meatus, hole)
Part of the external portion of the ear that directs sound into the ear?
Pinna
Contains many wax (ceruminous glands)?
External auditory canal
The wax in the ears is known as?
cerumen
The eardrum is also known as?
Tympanic membrane
Vibrates freely and is the boundary between the canal and the middle ear cavity?
Typanic membrane (ear drum)
Three small bones of the ear are known as?
ossicles
Ear bone shaped like a hammer?
Malleus
Ear bone shaped like an ANVIL?
Incus
Ear bone shaped like a stirrup or saddle?
Stapes
What are the functions of the ossicle in the ear?
To amplify sound waves from the eardrum to the inner ear
Connects the middle ear cavity with the throat (pharynx)?
Eustachian Tube
The most important part of the ear is the internal portion or?
Labyrinth
The skeleton the the inner ear is called?
Bony Labyrinth
What are the three divisions of the bony labyrinth?
Vestibule, semicircular canals, cochlea
Conists of two bony chambers that contain some of the receptors for equilibrium?
Vestibule
Three projecting tubes located toward the posterior?
Semicircular canals
Coiled like a snail shell and located twoard the anterior and contains the receptors for hearing?
Cochlea (coc shell)
The fluid of the bony labyrinth?
Perilymph (peri-around)
Whithin the bony labyrinth an exact replica of shell is made of?
Membrane
The tubes and chamers in the membrane within the bony labyrinth are?
Membraneous labyrinth
The membraneous labyrinth are filled with what type of fluid?
Endolymph (Endo-within, inside)
What is the structure of the fluids in the bony labyrinth?
Endolympth (inside)
Perilympth (around)
The organ of hearing (inner ear)?
Organ of Corti
Consists of ciliated receptor cells located inside the cochlea?
organ of Corti
The memraneous cochlea is also known as ?
Cochlear duct
Soundwaves enter the external ear canal and cause vibrations in the?
Tympanic Membrane
Ossicles amplify the vibrations from the tympanic membrane and finally transmit them from the stapes to?
Oval window of the inner ear
The cilia move back and forth against what membrane?
Tectorial membrane
The motion of the tectorial membrane sets up nerve impulses that travel to the brain in the?
Cochlear nerve (branch of the eighth cranial nerve)
Soundwaves leave the ear through another membrane-covered space in the bony labyrinth called?
The Round Windoe
Hearing receptors respond to what aspects of sound?
Pitch (tone) and intensity (loudness)
The organ of Corti's receptors in this area detect high pitch sounds?
The base of the cochlea
The organ of Corti's receptors in this area detect lower pitched sounds?
The top of the cochlea
Loud sounds stimulate more _____ and produce more________, sending more nerve impulses to the brain?
Cells, vibrations
What are the 8 steps in hearing?
1=Soundwaves enter ear
2=tympanic membrane vibrates
3=ossicles transmit vibrations across the middle ear cavity.
4=stapes transmits the vibrations to the inner ear fluid.
5=vibrations move cilia on hair cells of the organ of Corti in the cochlear duct.
6=movement against tectorial membrane generates nerve impulses.
7=impulses travel to the brain in the 8th cranial nerve.
8=temporal lobe cortex interprets the impulses.
Sensory receptors located in the vestibule and semicircular canal of the inner ear are responsible for?
Equilibrium
Receptors for the sense of equilibrium are also?
ciliated cells
Type of equilibrium with receptors in two small chambers of the vestibule, tilting head, moving in straight line, and in motorvehicle?
Static equilibrium (Static means still)
Receptor for equilibrium is called?
Macula
The fluid above the cilitated cells contain calcium carbonate crystalls called?
Otoliths (oto=ear) (lith=stone)
These receptors function when the body is spinning or moving in different directions?
Cristae
Type of equilibrium when the body is moving or spinning in different directions?
Dynamic equilibrium
Type of crystals located at the bases of the semi circular canals?
Cristae
Nerve fibers from the vestibule and semicircular canals form?
The vestibular nerve
This nerve joins the cochlear nerve to form the vestibulocochlear nerve, the 8th cranial nerve?
Vestibular nerve
Where are the receptors for equilibrium located?
The vestibule and semicircular canals
What are two types of equilibrium?
Static and dynamic
The sense of taste is also known as?
Gustation
This sense involves receptors in the tongue and two different nerves that carry impulses to the brain?
Tast or Gustation
Taste receptors are known as?
Taste Buds
Taste Buds are located along the edges of the small depressed areas of the tongue called?
Fissures
What are the four different regions of the tongue taste map?
Sweet, Salty, Sour, Bitter
Sweet tastes are most acutely experienced in what region of the tongue?
Tip of the tongue
Salty tastes are most acute in what region of the tongue?
Anterior sides (front)
Sour tastes are most acute in what region of the tongue?
Laterally on the tongue
Bitter tastes are detected on what part of the tongue?
Posterior part (Back)
Water taste receptors are located where?
In the back of the throat
Nerves of taste are include what two cranial nerves?
Facial VII (7) and glossopharyngeal IX (9)
The sense of smell is called?
Olfaction
The receptors for smell are located in?
The epithelium of the superor region of the nasal cavity
Which nerve are the impulses for smell carried by?
The olfactory nerve (I)
The olfactory nerve travels to the?
Olfactory center in the brains temporal cortex
What are the special senses that respond to chemical stimuli?
gustation and olfaction
Type of senses located within specific sense organs, limited to a relatively small area?
Special senses
Type of general sense with receptors called tactile corpuscles?
Touch
Type of touch receptor found mostly in the dermins of the skin and around the hair line?
Tactile corpuscles
Tactile corpuscles are the most dense on what part of the body?
Tips of fingers, lips and tongue
Tactile corpuscles are least dense on what part of the body?
Back of hand and back of neck
The sensory end organs for pressure are located where?
subcutaneous tissues beneath the skin, also near joints, muscles, and other deep tissues
Sensory end organs for pressure are sometimes referred to as?
Receptors for deep touch
Temperature nerve endings are?
Free nerve endings
Receptors that are not enclosed in capsules, but are merely branchings of nerve fiber?
Free nerve endings
Free nerve endings are widely distributed in the?
Skin
Name the types of temperature receptors in the skin?
Heat and cold receptors
Receptors located in the muscles, tendons, and joints which relay impulses that aid in judging one's position and changes in loaction of body parts in relation to each other are?
Proprioceptors
Type of receptors aided in function by the equilibrium receptors of the internal ear?
Proprioceptors
Sense of movement is known as?
Kinesthesia
Cerebellum is the main coordinating center for this type of general sense receptor?
Proprioceptors
Is the most important protective sense?
Pain
Pain receptors are widely distributed?
Free nerve endings
How many pathways tranmit pain to the CNS?
Two
What type of pain does each pathway transmit?
One is for acute, sharp pain
The other is for slow chronic pain
Drugs that relieve pain?
Analgesic drugs
Two main categories of analgesic drugs?
Nonnarcotic, Narcotics
This type of analgesic drug acts locally to reduce inflammation and are effective for mile to moderate pain?
Nonnarcotic drugs
This type of analgesic drug act on the CNS to alter perception and response to pain?
Narcotic drugs
Type of analgesic drug commonly known as NSAIDS non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs?
Nonnarcotic drugs
Examples of nonnarcotic drugs are?
Ibuprofin and naproxen
Type of analgesic drug effective for severe pain, usually orally or IM?
Narcotic drugs
Morphine is an axample of what type of analgesic drug?
Narcotic
Although most commonly used to prevent pain during surgery, can also be used to relieve types of chronic pain?
Anasthetics
Natural pain relief associated with the control of pain, Internally released from the brain?
Endorphins
Other types of pain relief?
Heat and cold therapy, and relaxation or distraction techniques
The phenomenon when sensory receptors are exposed to continuous stimulus, receptors often adjust themselves so that the sensation becomes less acute?
Sensory adaptation Ex: putting your hand in hot water, after your hand is acclimated the water feels less hot even if it not
In sensory adaptation these receptors adapt rapidly?
warmth, cold, and light pressure
In sensory adaptation these receptors DO NOT adapt?
Pain receptors
The vasular pigmented middle tunic of the eyeball?
Choroid
A vision receptor that is sensitive to color?
Cone
The part of the eye that light rays pass through first as they enter the eye?
Cornea
The membrane that lines the eyelids?
Conjuctiva
Another name for the blind spot, the region where the optic nerve connects with the eyeball?
Optic disk
The innermost coat of the eyeball, the nervous tissue layer that includes the receptors for the sense of vision?
Retina
A vision receptor that function well in dim light?
Rod
The structure that alters the shape of the lens for accomodation?
Ciliary muscle
The watery fluid that fills much of the eyeball in front of the crystalline lens?
Aqueous humor
Two sets of muscle fibers that regulate the amount of light entering the eye?
Iris
The jelly-like material located behind the crystalline lens that maintains the spherical shape of the eyeball?
Vitreous Body
A pigment needed for vision?
Rhodopsin
The depressed are in the retina that is the point of the clearest vision?
Fovea centralis
The central opening of the iris?
Pupil
The fluid contained within the membraneous labyrinth of the inner ear?
Endolympth
The bone that ineracts with the tympanic membrane?
Malleus
Another name for the projecting part, auricle, of the ear?
Pinna
The channel connecting the middle ear cavity with the pharynx?
Eustachian tube
The fluid of the inner ear contained within the bony labyrinth and surroinding the membraneous labyrinth?
Perilympth
Ciliated receptor cells that detect sound waves?
Organ of Corti
The skeleton of the inner ear?
Bony labyrinth
The sense of knowing the position of the head in relation to gravity?
Static equilibrium
Small crystals that activate maculae?
Otoliths
The sense organ involved in dynamic equilibrium?
Semicircular canals
The receptor cells involved in dynamic equilibrium?
Cristae
Two small chambers containing maculae
Vestibule
The branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that carries hearing impulses?
Cochlear nerve
The nerve that carries visual impulses from the retina to the brain?
Optic nerve
The branch of the fifth cranial nerve that carries impulses of pain, touch, and temperature from the eye to the brain?
Ophthalmic nerve
The largest of the three cranial nerves that carry motor fibers to the eyeball muscles?
Oculomotor nerve
The sense of knowing the position of one's body and the relativ positions of different muscles?
Proprioception
The sense of body movement?
Kinesthesia
Receptors that detect changes in temperature?
Free nerve endings
A person who lacks cones in the retina will experience?
Color blindness
The Organ of Corti is the receptor for?
Hearing
The transparent portion of the sclera?
Cornea
The glands that secrete ear wax are called?
ceruminous glands
The nerve endings that aid in judging position and changes in location of body parts are the?
Proprioceptors
The sense of position is partially governed by equilibrium receptors in the internal ear, including two small chambers in the vestibule and the three?
Semicircular canals
How many semicircular canals are there?
Three
The tactile corpuscles are the receptors for the sense of?
Touch
Any drug that relieves pain is called?
Analgesic
When you enter a darkened room, it takes a while for the rods to begin to function. This interval is known as?
Dark adaptation
The receptor tunic layer of the eye is the?
retina
These eye muscles control the diameter of the pupil?
Intrinsic
There are how many extrinsic muscle connected to each eye?
Six 6
The iris is this type of eye muscle?
Intrinsic
The sense of temperature is what type of sense?
General sense
Soundwaves leave the ear through this type of window?
Round
This muscle contracts to thicken the lens?
Ciliary muscle
What are the parts of the outer ear?
pinna, auditory canal (meatus), tympanic membrane (eardrum)
What are the parts of the middle ear?
Ossicles- meallus, incus, stapes
Eustachian tube
What are the parts of the inner ear?
bony labyrinth, membraneous labyrinth, cochlea (organ of Corti), vestibule (2) maculae, Semicircular canals, cilia, vestibulocochlear (auditory) nerve 8th
The receptor that senses static equilibrium?
Maculea