Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/60

Click to flip

60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
positive nervousness
Controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for her or his presentation
visualization
Mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation.
ethnocentrism
The belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures.
plagiarism
Presenting another person's language or ideas as one's own.
global plagiarism
Stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one's own.
patchwork plagiarism
Stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one's own.
incremental plagiarism
Failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people.
appreciative listening
Listening for pleasure or enjoyment.
empathic listening
Listening to provide emotional support for a speaker.
Comprehensive Listening
Listening to understand the message of a speaker.
critical listening
listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it
What are the three suggestions for focusing your listening?
Listen for Main Points
Listen for Evidence
Listen for Technique
What are the four brainstorming techniques for topics?
Personal Inventory
Clustering
Reference search
internet search
personal inventory
Make a quick inventory of your experiences, interests, hobbies, skills, beliefs, and so forth. Jot down EVERYTHING. From this list may come a general subject area out of which you can fashion a specific topic.
Clustering
Divide a paper into nine columns: People, places, things, events, processes, concepts, natural phenomena, problems, plans, policies. List in each column the first five or six items that come to mind.
Reference Search
Go to the reference room of the library and browse through an encyclopedia, a periodical database, or some other reference work until you stumble across what might be a good speech topic.
Internet Search
Connect to a subject-based search engine, such as Yahoo or the LIbrarians' Index to the Internet.
audience centeredness
keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation
identification
a process in which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences
brief example
a specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point
extended example
a story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point
hypothetical example
an example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation
Make your examples vivid and richly textured
The richly textured example supplies everyday details that bring the example to life. THe more vivid your examples--brief or extended--the more impact they are likely to have on your audience.
Practice delivery to enhance your extended examples
An extended example is just like a story or narrative. Its impact will depend as much on delivery as on content. So practice!
Use Statistics from reliable sources
As a speaker, you must be aware of possible bias in the use of numbers. Since statistics can be interpreted so many ways and put to so many uses, you should seek figures gathered by objective, nonpartisan sources
Use statistics sparingly
Insert statistics only when they are needed, and then make sure they are easy to grasp.
Explain your statistics
Statistics don't speak for themselves. They need to be interpreted and related to your listeners. Explain what statistics mean when dealing with large numbers since they are hard to visualize.
Round off complicated statistics
Unless there is an important reason to give exact numbers, you should round off most statistics.
Use visual aids to clarify statistical trends
visual aids can save you a lot of time, as well as make your statistics easier to comprehend.
expert testimony
testimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields
peer testimony
testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic
Use Testimony from qualified sources
Being a celebrity or an authority in one area does not make someone competent in other areas. Listeners will find your speeches much more credible if you use testimony from sources qualified on the subject at hand. As we have seen, this may include either recognized experts or ordinary citizens with special experience on the speech topic.
Use testimony from unbiased sources
Careful listeners are suspicious of opinion from biased or self-interest sources. Be sure to use testimony from credible, competent, objective authorities.
chronological order
a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern
spatial order
a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern
causal order
a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship
problem-solution order
a method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.
topical order
a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics
Why is public speaking considered an art?
Like other arts, public speaking involves theories, models, and practice
What is success based on in public speaking?
Success as a public speaker is based largely on critical thinking, appropriate rhetorical choices, self-confidence, and effective delivery
What are the five canons of rhetoric?
invention
arrangement
style
memory
delivery
What are the three rhetorical appeals?
ethos
pathos
logos
ethos
credibility of speaker
pathos
emotional appeals
logos
logical appeals-create impression of reasoned arguments that support speakers position
What are the three selective psychological processes?
1) selective attention
2) selective perception
3) selective retention
selective attention
need to get everybody interested in you. come up with creative introduction, opening device
selective perception
audience members perceive things differently. how do you get the audience to perceive the message the same?
selective retention
ppl remember things differently
What are the two steps of demographic audience analysis?
1) Identify general demographic features
2) Determine the importance of those features
What are the 7 major demographic variables?
1) Age
2) Gender
3) Sexual orientation
4) Racial, ethnic, & cultural background
5) religion
6) group membership
7) other variables
What are the three points to dispositional audience analysis?
interest
knowledge
attitude
What are the four objectives of the introduction?
1) gain audiences attention
2) establish credibility
3) reveal your topic in introduction
4) preview the main points
What are the eight types of opening devices?
1) reference to the subject
2) reference to the occassion
3) personal reference
4) rhetorical questions
5) startling statement
6) pertinant quotation
7) using a joke/funny story
8) a real or hypothetical story
What are the four reasons why good organization is important?
1) helps with audience comprehension
2) assits with audience retention
3) good organization increases speaker credibility
4) can increase speaker confidence
Number of Main Points
1) 2-3 main points
2) never more than 5
3) Common organizational patterns
a- special considerations
b- each main pt should be equally important
c- balance time allocation
d- use parallel wording
Coordination and subordination
Coordination- All points at 1 level of an outline should not overlap and should be of equal importance

Subordination- each point of the outline must directly support the point at the next level
signposts (two concepts)
using language to flag an important idea
What are the two objectives of the conclusion?
1) signal the end
2) leave a really strong final impression
Developing a note of finality
- avoid an abrupt ending so audience is satisfied that it's over
- weed in a concluding phrase
- work on delivery to execute a note of finality (pull voice down, slow down)
- avoid saying thank-you