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65 Cards in this Set

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Extended Example
A story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point
Tips for using statistics (6)
1) Use statistics to quantify your ideas
2) Use sparingly
3) Identify
4) Explain
5) Round off complicated statistics
6) Use visual aids
Hypothetical Example
an example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation
Mean
the average value of a groups number
Paraphrase
to restate or summarize a source's ideas in one's own words
Mode
the number that occurs the most frequently in a group number
Median
the middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest
Peer Testimony
testimony from ordinary people with firsthand experience or insight on a topic
Checklist for using testimony (6)
1)Do I use testimony to support my ideas?
2) Do I use testimony from qualified sources?
3) Do I use testimony from unbiased sources?
4) Do I distinguish between expert testimony and peer testimony?
5) Do I identify the sources of all testimony?
6) Do I quote and paraphrase all sources of testimony with complete accuracy?
Expert Testimony
testimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields (most reliable especially for controversial or skeptical speeches
Three major kinds of supporting materials
1) Examples- specific case used to illustrate or represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like
2) Statistics- numerical data
3) Testimony- quotations or paraphrases used to support a point
5 basic patterns of organization used most often by public speakers
1) Chronological order
2) Spatial order
3) Casual order
4) Problem-solution order
5) Topical order- main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics
Internal summary
a statement of the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points
(Reminds listeners what they just heard)
Transitions
a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another
Causal order
a method of speech organization in which they main points show a cause-effect relationship
Internal preview
a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss
(audience knows exactly that to listen to as the speaker develops their main points)
Chronological order
a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern
Connective
a word or phrase that connects the idea of a speech and indicates the relationship between them.
Signposts
a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas
Spatial order
a method or speech organization in which the main points follow a directional path
Crescendo Ending
a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity
Preview Statement
a statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body of the speech
Tips for preparing the introduction (5)
1) Keep the introduction brief (10%-20% of speech)
2) Introductory materials
3) Be creative
4) Don't worry about exact wording
5) Work out in detail
Dissolve Ending
a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step-by-step to a dramatic final statement
Two kinds of meaning that words have
1) Denotative Meaning- the literal or dictionary meaning of a word
2)Connotative Meaning- the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase (gives words their intensity and emotional appeal)
Principles for inclusive language (5)
Inclusive language- language that doesn't stereotype or demean people
1) Avoid the Generic "He"
2) Avoid the use of "man" when referring to women and men
3) Avoid stereotyping jobs and social role by gender
4) Avoid identifying personal traits that are unrelated to the topic
5) Use names that groups use to identify themselves
Alliteration
Repetition of the initial constant sound of close or adjoining words
Cliche
A trite or overused expression
("fresh as a daisy")
Parallelism
the similar arrangement of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences
Metaphor
a implicit comparison, not introduced with the word "like" or "as", between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common
Simile
an explicit comparison, introduced with the word "like" or "as" between things that are essentially different yet have something in common
Antithesis
the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure
Repetition
the reiteration of the same word or set of words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences
Five step method for practicing delivery
1) Go through presentation (out loud)
2) Prepare speaking outline
3) Prepare aloud several times
4) Polish and define your delivery
5) Dress rehearsal (practice with conditions same as presentation)
Impromptu Speech
a speech delivered with little or or no immediate preparation
Manuscript Speech
a speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience
Aspects of voice you should try to control (8)
1)Volume- loudness/softness
2)Pitch- high/lowness
3) Rate-speed
4) Pauses- momentary break
5) Vocal variety- changes in the pitch and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness
6) Pronunciation
7) Articulation
8) Dialect
Guidelines for presenting visual aids (7)
1) Avoid using chalkboards
2) Display visual aids where they can be seen
3) Avoid passing visual aids among audience
4) Display only when discussing them
5) Talk to audience not the visual aid
6) Explain visual aid vividly and concisely
7) Practice with visual aids
Pie Graph
a graph that highlights segments of a circle to show simple distribution patterns
Bar Graph
a graph that uses vertical or horizontal bars to show comparison among two or more items
Jargon
the specialized or technical language of trade, profession, or similar group
Guidelines for informative speaking (5)
1) Don't overestimate what the audience knows
2) Relate the subject to the audience
3) Don't be too technical
4) Avoid abstractions (descriptions; contrast and comparison)
5) Personalize your ideas
Informative Speaking
a speech designed to convey knowledge and understanding
Three basic issues when you discuss a question of policy
1) Need-Is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy?
2) Plan- Does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem?
3) Practicality- Will it solve the problem or will it create more problems?
Organizing speeches on the question of value
Organized Topically
(Specific Point)Point 1: Standard for your value judgement
(Central Idea) Point 2: Applying Standards to subject of speech

Example: Capital Punishment
Specific Point: To persuade my audience that Capital Punishment is morally wrong
Central Idea: Capital Punishment violates that both the Bible and U.S constitution
1) CP violates the biblical commandment "Thou Shall Not Kill"
2) CP violates the constitutional law "cruel and punishment"
Organizing speeches on the question of policy (4 methods/orders)
1) Problem-Solution Order
2) Problem-Cause-Solution Order
3) Comparative Advantage Order- each main point explains why a speaker's solution to a problem is preferable to other proposed solutions
4) Monroe's Motivated Sequence -seek immediate action
Questions of fact
a question about the truth or falsity of an assertion
Monroe's Motivated Sequence (5)
1) Attention-audience attention
2) Need- show need for change
3) Satisfaction- solution to problem
4) Visualization- visualize it's benefits
5) Action- "call for action"
Questions of value
a question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action
Questions of policy
a question about whether a specific course of actions should not be taken
Organizing speeches on the question of fact
Logically
Each main point will present a reason why someone should agree with you
Initial Credibility
the credibility of a speaker before he or she speaks
Terminal Credibility
the credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech
Four basic methods of reasoning and how to use them
1) Reasoning from specific instances- progress from a number of facts-conclusion
2) Reasoning from principle- general principle to specific conclusion
3) Casual Reasoning- establish the relationship between cause and effect
4) Analogical Reasoning- a speaker compares two similar cases and infers that what is true for the first cause is true for the second
Derived Credibility
the credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech
Tips for using evidence (4)
1) Use specific evidence
2) Use novel evidence
3) Use from credible sources
4) Make clear the point of your evidence
Fallacies of reasoning (5)
1) Red-Herring
2) Ad Hominem
3) Either-or
4) Bandwagon
5) Slippery Slope
Red-Herring
introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under discussion

Topic A is under discussion.
Topic B is introduced under the guise of being relevant to topic A (when topic B is actually not relevant to topic A).
Topic A is abandoned.
Ad Hominem
attacks the person rather than dealing with the issue
Either-or
forces listeners to choose between 2 alternatives when more than two alternatives exist
Bandwagon
assumes that because something is popular, it is good, correct, or desirable

Person P is pressured by his/her peers or threatened with rejection.
Therefore person P's claim X is false.
Slippery Slope
assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented

Event X has occurred (or will or might occur).
Therefore event Y will inevitably happen.
Kinds of Special Occasion speeches (5)
1) Acceptance Speech
2) Commemorative Speech
3) After-dinner Speech
4) Introduction Speech
5) Speech of Presentation
Commemorative speech
a speech that plays tribute to a person, a group of people, an institute, or an idea
Guidelines for Speeches of Introduction (6)
1) Be brief
2) Remarks are accurate
3) Adapt remarks to the occasion
4) Adapt remarks to the speaker
5) Adapt remarks to the audience
6) Try to create a sense of anticipation and drama