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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Complex and varied group of people the speaker addresses.
audience
Considerate of the positions, beliefs, values, and needs of an audience
audience centered
Means by which the message is conveyed
channel
Care and concern for others, the thoughtful use of words and language, and the flexibility to see the many sides of an issue.
civility
Environment or situation in which a speech occurs
context
Translating words, sounds, and gestures into ideas and feelings in an attempt to understand the message
decoding
Translating ideas and feelings into words, sounds, and gestures
encoding
Speaker who considers the moral impact of his or her ideas and arguments on others when involved in the public dialogue.
ethical public speaker
Verbal and nonverbal signals an audience gives a speaker.
feedback
Communication among members of a team or a collective about topics such as goals, strategies, and conflict.
group communication
Communication with other people that ranges from the highly personal to the highly impersonal
interpersonal communication
Communication with ourselves via the dialogue that goes on in our heads
intrapersonal communication
Communication generated by media organizations that is designed to reach large audiences.
mass communication
Information conveyed by the speaker to the audience
message
Anything that interferes with understanding the message being communicated.
noise
Communication in which one person gives a speech to other people, most often in a public setting.
public communication
Ethical and civil exchange of ideas and opinions among communities about topics that affect the public
public dialogue
Person who stimulates public dialogue by delivering an oral message
speaker
Speech that acknowledges gratitude, appreciation, and pleasure at receiving an honor or a gift.
acceptance speech
Positive, motivating statements that replace negative self-talk
affirmations
An authoritative list, an accepted principle or rule, or an accepted standard of judgment
canon
Guidelines for ordering the ideas in a speech
canon of arrangement
Guidelines for managing your voice, gestures, posture, facial expressions, and visual aids as you present your speech.
canon of delivery
Guidelines for generating effective content for a speech
canon of invention
Guidelines for the time taken to rehearse a speech and the ways you prompt yourself to remember the speech as you give it.
canon of memory
Guidelines for using language effectively and appropriately
canon of style
Process that helps reduce anxiety by replacing negative thoughts with positive ones, called affirmations
cognitive restructuring
Speech that praises, honors, recognizes, or pays tribute to a person, an event, an idea, or an institution
commemorative speech
Level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication with another person or persons
communication apprehension
Speech that communicates knowledge and understanding about a process, an event, a person or place, an object, or a concept
informative speech
Speech that gives the audience a sense of the unique perspective of the person introduced or welcomes and familiarizes the audience with an event.
introductory speech
Speech that allows the speaker to enter into a dialogue with an audience to clarify positions, explore issues and ideas, or share beliefs and values
invitational speech
Speech whose message attempts to change or reinforce an audience’s thoughts, feelings, or actions.
persuasive speech
Anxiety we feel when we learn we have to give a speech or take a public speaking course.
public speaking anxiety (PSA)
Speaking to give a presentation to a small collection of individuals or speaking as part of a small group of people
small group speaking
Apprehension about communicating with others in a particular situation.
state, or situational, anxiety
Technique for reducing anxiety that involves teaching your body to feel calm and relaxed rather than fearful during your speeches.
systematic desensitization
Apprehension about communicating with others in any situation
trait anxiety
Process in which you construct an image of yourself in your mind’s eye giving a successful speech
visualization
Actions a speaker wants the audience to take at the end of a speech
behavioral objectives
Process of generating ideas randomly and uncritically, without attention to logic, connections, or relevance
brainstorming
Speech’s broad goal: to inform, invite, persuade, introduce, commemorate, or accept.
general purpose
Focused statement that identifies exactly what a speaker wants to accomplish with a speech.
specific purpose
Subject of your speech.
speech topic
Statement that summarizes in a single declarative sentence the main proposition, assumption, or argument you want to express in your speech
thesis statement
General positive or negative feeling a person has about something
attitude
Complex and varied group of people the speaker addresses
audience
Acknowledging your audience by considering and listening to the unique, diverse, and common perspectives of its members before, during, and after your speech.
audience centered
Person’s idea of what is real or true or not
belief
Question that requires the respondent to choose an answer from two or more alternatives
closed-ended question
Analysis that identifies the particular population traits of an audience
demographic audience analysis
Interaction, connection, and exchange of ideas and opinions with others.
dialogue
Trying to see and understand the world as another person does
empathy
Belief that our own cultural perspectives, norms, and ways of organizing society are superior to others.
ethnocentrism
Significant positions occupied by a person within society that affect that person’s identity in almost all social situations.
master statuses
Question that allows the respondent to answer in an unrestricted way.
open-ended question
Time and place in which a speaker will speak
speaking environment
Perspective from which a person views and evaluates society.
standpoint
Broad generalization about an entire group based on limited knowledge or exposure to only certain members of that group
stereotype
Person’s idea of what is good, worthy, or important
value
Brief overview in the introduction of a speech of each of the main points in the speech.
preview
Question a speaker asks that an audience isn’t supposed to answer out loud but rather in their own minds
rhetorical question
Concise restatement of the main points at the end of a speech
summary
Process of arranging points into successive levels, with the points on a specific level having the same weight or value
coordination
Detailed outline a speaker builds when preparing a speech that includes the title, specific purpose, thesis statement, introduction, main points and subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and source citations of the speech
preparation outline
Condensed form of a preparation outline, used to help a speaker remember his or her ideas when speaking
speaking outline
Point in a speech that develops an aspect of a subpoint
sub-subpoint
Process of ranking ideas in order from the most to the least important
subordination
Point in a speech that develops an aspect of a main point.
subpoint
power and influence of public speaking
1. civility
2. add to public dialogue
3. ethical public speaking
5 types of public speaking?
1. intrapersonal
2. interpersonal
3. group
4. mass
5. public
How does public speaking create community
1.We share ideas & information
2.We consider questions & possibilities
3.We talk about topics that affect us all
influence of culture and gender on public speaking
Speakers must consider positions, beliefs, values & needs of audiences
how is public speaking audience centered?
1.Audiences influence message
2.Speakers must consider positions, beliefs, values & needs of audiences
3.Speakers receive feedback from audiences
How does public speaking encourage ethical dialogue?
1.Sets stage for future discussions
2.Interest in discussing issues
3.Interest in hearing more from audience
Why speak publicly.
1.Decide to speak on matters of importance
2.Asked to speak about experiences or expertise
3.Required to speak
6 general purposes of public speaking
1. to invite
2. to inform
3. to persuade
4. to commemorate
5. to accept
6. to introduce
type of speech that Communicates knowledge and understanding about a process, an event, a person or place, an object, or a concept
informative speech
type of speech that aims to explore and understand many sides to an issue
invitational speech
type of speech that attempts to change or reinforce an audience’s thoughts, feelings or actions
persuasive speech
type of speech that Presents information about yourself, another person, or an event to an audience
introductory speech
type of speech that praises, honors, recognizes, or pays tribute to a person, an event, an idea or an institution
commemorative speech
type of speech that acknowledges your gratitude, appreciation, and pleasure at receiving an honor or a gift
acceptance speech
canons of rhetoric
1. invention
2. arrangement
3. style
4. memory
5. delivery
5 ways to reduce nervousness
Prepare
Practice
Be realistic
Visualize success
Affirm strengths
Connect with audience
three contexts that influence your speaking goals
Deciding to speak
Being asked to speak
Being required to speak
4 functions of an introduction
Catch audience’s attention
Reveal and relate topic
Establish credibility
Preview speech
types of introductions
Rhetorical questions
Story
Quotation or poem
Demonstration
Startling statement
State importance of topic
Share expertise
State what’s to come
goals of conclusion
Tip off ending
Reinforce thesis statement
Create closure
words or phrases that help transition from one point to the next
connectives
tips for a preparation outline
Divide points into at least two subpoints
Check for balance
Keep audience-centered focus
complete sentences