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94 Cards in this Set

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Listener who needs to hear verbal explanations and descriptions to learn well.
auditory listener
Local or regional informal dialect or expression.
colloquialism
Recognizing, acknowledging, and expressing value for another person.
confirming
Speech that eases the audience’s burden of processing information.
considerate speech
Listener who listens for the accuracy of a speech’s content and the implications of a speaker’s message.
critical listener
Language that respectfully recognizes the differences among the many cultures in our society.
culturally inclusive language
Listener who overcomes listener interference to better understand a speaker’s message.
effective listener
Listener who considers the moral impact of a speaker’s message on one’s self and one’s community.
ethical listener
Word or phrase that substitutes an agreeable or inoffensive expression for one that may offend or suggest something unpleasant
euphemism
Listener who needs to touch, explore, and participate in what is being described.
experiential listener
Language recognizing that both women and men are active participants in the world.
gender-inclusive language
Vibration of sound waves on our eardrums and the impulses then sent to the brain.
hearing
Anything that stops or hinders a listener from receiving a message.
interference
Technical language used by a special group or for a special activity.
jargon
Speech that is considerate and delivered in an oral style.
listenable speech
Process of giving thoughtful attention to another person’s words and understanding what you hear.
listening
Informal nonstandard vocabulary, usually made up of arbitrarily changed words.
slang
Practice of highlighting a person’s race or ethnicity (or sex, sexual orientation, physical disability, and the like) during a speech
spotlighting
Extra words that pad sentences and claims but don’t add meaning.
verbal clutter
Listener who needs to see something to understand it and how it works.
visual listener
Process of reasoning suggesting that because two conditions or events resemble each other in ways that are certain, they will resemble each other in other ways that are less certain
analogical reasoning
Set of statements that allows you to develop your evidence to establish the validity of your claim.
argument
Process of reasoning that supports a claim by establishing a cause-and-effect relationship.
causal reasoning
Audience’s view of a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.
character
Audience’s view of a speaker’s intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of a subject.
competence
Logical outcome of an argument that results from the combination of the major and minor premises.
conclusion
Audience’s perception of a speaker’s competence and character.
credibility
Process of reasoning that uses a familiar and commonly accepted claim to establish the truth of a very specific claim.
deductive reasoning
Word Aristotle used to refer to the speaker’s credibility.
ethos
Error in reasoning in which a speaker assumes that one event caused another simply because the first event happened before the second
false cause
Error in reasoning in which a speaker reaches a conclusion without enough evidence to support it.
hasty generalization
Process of reasoning that uses specific instances, or examples, to make a claim about a general conclusion.
inductive reasoning
Mental leaps we make when we agree that a speaker’s evidence supports his or her claims.
inferences
Word Aristotle used to refer to the logical arrangement of evidence in a speech.
logos
Claim in an argument that states a familiar, commonly accepted belief (also called the general principle).
major premise
Claim in an argument that states a specific instance linked to the major premise.
minor premise
Word Aristotle used to refer to emotional appeals made by a speaker.
pathos
Process of reasoning that assumes something exists or will happen based on something else that exists or has happened.
reasoning by sign
Something that represents something else.
sign
Word that refers to ideas or concepts but not to specific objects.
abstract word
Repetition of a particular sound in a sentence or phrase.
alliteration
Placement of words and phrases in contrast or opposition to one another.
antithesis
Word that refers to a tangible object—a person, place, or thing.
concrete word
Fixed, distinctive expression whose meaning is not indicated by its individual words.
idiom
System of verbal or gestural symbols a community uses to communicate with one another.
language
Figure of speech that makes a comparison between two things by describing one thing as being something else.
metaphor
Metaphor that makes illogical comparisons between two or more things.
mixed metaphor
Rhyme, phrase, or other verbal device that makes information easier to remember.
mnemonic device
Speaking style that reflects the spoken rather than the written word.
oral style
Arrangement of related words so they are balanced or of related sentences so they have identical structures.
parallelism
Figure of speech that attributes human characteristics to animals, objects, or concepts.
personification
Object, concept, or event a symbol represents.
referent
Repetition of keywords or phrases at the beginnings or endings of sentences or clauses to create rhythm.
repetition
Arrangement of words into patterns so the sounds of the words together enhance the meaning of a phrase.
rhythm
Figure of speech that makes an explicit comparison of two things using the word like or as.
simile
Word or phrase spoken by a speaker.
symbol
Memory and past experiences that audience members have with an object, concept, or event.
thought, or reference
Request that an audience engage in some clearly stated behavior.
call to action
Organizational pattern that illustrates the advantages of one solution over others.
comparative advantages organization
Arguments against the speaker’s own position.
counterarguments
Threat of something undesirable happening if change does not occur.
fear appeal
Motivate an audience to engage in a specific behavior or take a specific action.
gain immediate action
Ask an audience to adopt a new position without also asking them to act in support of that position.
gain passive agreement
Sequential process used to persuade audiences by gaining attention, demonstrating a need, satisfying that need, visualizing beneficial results, and calling for action
Monroe’s motivated sequence
Speech whose message attempts to change or reinforce an audience’s thoughts, feelings, or actions.
persuasive speech
Organizational pattern that focuses on identifying a specific problem, the causes of that problem, and a solution for the problem.
problem-cause-solution organization
Organizational pattern that focuses on persuading an audience that a specific problem exists and can be solved or minimized by a specific solution.
problem-solution organization
Question that addresses whether something is true or not.
question of fact
Question that addresses the best course of action or the best solution to a problem.
question of policy
Question that addresses the merit or morality of an object, action, or belief.
question of value
Persuasive strategy that addresses both sides of an issue, refuting one side to prove the other is better.
two-sided message
Argument in which a speaker attacks a person rather than that person’s arguments.
ad hominem fallacy
Argument that something is correct or good because everyone else agrees with it or is doing it.
bandwagon fallacy
Audience’s view of a speaker’s sincerity, trustworthiness, and concern for the well-being of the audience.
character
Similarities, shared interests, and mutual perspectives a speaker has with an audience.
common ground
Audience’s view of a speaker’s intelligence, expertise, and knowledge of a subject.
competence
Audience’s perception of a speaker’s competence and character.
credibility
Credibility a speaker develops during a speech.
derived credibility
Argument in which a speaker claims our options are “either A or B,” when actually more than two options exist. Sometimes called a false dilemma
either-or fallacy
Word Aristotle used to refer to the speaker’s credibility.
ethos
Argument that seems valid but is flawed because of unsound evidence or reasoning.
fallacy
Credibility a speaker has before giving a speech.
initial credibility
Word Aristotle used to refer to the logical arrangement of evidence in a speech.
logos
Interrelated set of beliefs, attitudes, values, and feelings held by members of a particular society or culture.
mythos
Word Aristotle used to refer to emotional appeals made by a speaker.
pathos
Argument that introduces irrelevant information into an argument to distract an audience from the real issue.
red herring fallacy
Argument in which a speaker claims that taking a first step in one direction will lead to inevitable and undesirable further steps
slippery slope fallacy
Credibility a speaker has at the end of a speech.
terminal credibility
How to listen ethically (3)
suspend judgement
assess information
respond to speakers ideas
A=B
B=C
therefore A=C
deductive reasoning
argument by example. Look for patterns in evidence
inductive reasoning
toulins model of a sound argument
claims, grounds, warrant, backing. Like a child continually asking why
5 patterns of reasoning
inductive
deductive
causal
analogical
sign
Semantic triangle
thought - symbol (words) - referent (things)