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28 Cards in this Set

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Cultural Knowledge
Information that enables people to function in their society and contributes to the survival of the society as a whole.
Cultural Models
Shared assumptions that people have about the world and about the ideal culture.
Norms
Sets of expectations and attitudes that people have about appropriate behavior.
Subculture
A group whose members and others think of their way of life as in some significant way different from that of other people in the larger society.
Enculturation
Process of learning one's culture though informal observation and formal instruction.
Taboos
Norms specifying behaviors that are prohibited in a culture.
Cultural Core
Practices by which people organize their work and produce food and other goods necessary for their survival.
Cultural Integration
Tendency for people's practices and beliefs to form a relatively coherent and consistent system .
Symbol
A word, image, or object that stands for cultural ideas or sentiments.
Naturalized Concepts
Ideas and behaviors so deeply embedded in a culture that they are regarded as universally normal or natural.
Culture Wars
Internal disagreements in a society about cultural models or about how society or the world should be organized.
Counterculture
An alternative cultural model within a society that expresses different views about the way that society should be organized.
Worldview
Culture-based, often ethnocentric, way that people see the world and other peoples.
Culture Contact
Direct integration between peoples of different cultures through migration, trade, invasion, or conquest.
Syncretism
Process by which a cultural product is created when people adapt a cultural item selectively borrowed from another culture to fit their existing culture.
Assimilation
Process by which a less numerous and less powerful cultural group changes its ways to blend with the dominant culture.
Acculturation
Process by which a group adjusts to living within a dominant culture while at the same time maintaining its original cultural identity.
Cultural Pluralism
Condition in a stratified society in which many diverse cultural groups ideally live together equally and harmoniously without losing their cultural identities and diversity.
Modernization
Complex culture change, both internal and external, based on industrialism and a transitional market economy.
Cultural Evolution
Belief of early anthropologists that cultures evolve through various stages from a simpler and more primitive state to a complex and more culturally advanced state.
Social Darwinism
Early belief that cultures compete for survival of the fittest, as in the process of natural selection in biological evolution.
Culture History
Ongoing culture change in which people respond and adapt to their environment.
Ethnogenesis
Ongoing process in which people develop, define, and direct their own cultural and ethnic identities.
Innovation
Process by which new technologies and systems of knowledge are based on or built from previous tools, knowledge, and skills.
Diffusion
Spread of ideas, material objects, and cultural practices from one society to another through direct and indirect culture contact.
Reactive Adaptation
Coping response of captive, conquered, or oppressed peoples to loss and deprivation.
Revitalization Movement
Type of nonviolent reactive adaptation in which people try to resurrect their culture heroes and restore their traditional way of life.
Global Culture
A constellation of technologies, practices, attitudes, values, and symbols that spread internationally from one broad cultural origin, most recently from the Anglo-European-American cultural complex.