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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
in a descent group, the individual who stands at the apex, or top, of the common geneology
apical ancestor
basic unit of social organization among foragers. a band includes fewer than 100 people; it often splits up seasonally
the lineage of a child is traced through both parents
bilateral lineage
the rule-governed dialect spoken by American black youth, especially in inner-city areas; also spoken in rural areas and used in the casual, intimate speech of many adults; also known as ebonics
black english vernacular (bev)
a customary gift before, at, or after marriage from the husband and his kin to the wife and her kin
unilineal descent group based on stipulated descent
vocal systems of communication used by nonhuman primates, composed of limited number of sounds - calls - which are produced only when particular environmental stimuli are encountered
call system
absence of the verb "to be;" featured in BEV and in diverse languages, including Hebrew and Russian.
copula deletion
a permanent social unit whose members claim common ancestry; fundamental to tribal society
descent group
variance in a language
the existence of "high" (formal) and "low" (familial) dialects of a single language, such as German.
a basic feature of language; the ability to speak of things and events that are not present
a marital exchange in which the wife's group provides substantial gifts to the husband's family
the study of lexical (vocabulary) contrasts and classifications in various languages
mating or marriage outside of one's kin group; a cultural universal
marriage between people of the same social group
expanded household including three or more generations
extended family
nuclear family in which one is born and grows up
family of orientation
nuclear family established when one marries and has children
family of procreation
a linguistic term that describes things that set female speech apart from male speech
female register
personal relationships modeled on kinship, such as that between godparents and godchildren
fictive kin
a set of words and distinctions that are particularly important to certain groups (those with particular foci of experience or activity), such as types of snow to Eskimos or skiers
focal vocabulary
social characteristics and expectations that surround men and women in a society
unequal distribution of rewards (socially valued resources, poewr, prestige, and personal freedom) between men and women, reflecting their different positions in a social hierarchy
gender stratification
the biological father
the biological mother
marriage into a higher social class
marriage into a lower social class
universal prohibition against marrying or mating with a close relative
incest taboo
the study of communication through body movements, stances, gestures, and facial expressions
the system by which people in a particular society reckon kin relationships
kinship calculation
associated "r" pronounciation with prestige through studies conducted in New York in 1972
William Labov
custom by which a widow marries the brother of her deceased husband
vocabulary; a dictionary containing all the morphemes in a language and their meaning
notion that all languages and dialects are equally effective as systems of communication
linguistic relativism
the idea that the same forces that have produced large-scale linguistic changes over the centuries, working gradually, are still at work and can be observed in linguistic events (language use) taking place today
linguistic uniformitarianism
social mother
customary residence with the wife's relatives after marriage, so that children grow up in their mother's community
matrilocal residence
a society rules by women; unknown to ethnography
using language to talk about language or draw attention to it
words that resemble each other in all but one sound; used to discover phonemes
minimal pairs
- live in Indonesia
- example of how matrilineality affect society
- play an important role running the village and raising children
- men travel back and forth from his wife’s house to his mother’s house, have no real affect on things
marriage or realtions with only one person
minimal linguistic form (usually a word) with meaning
the study of form; used in linguistics (the study of morphemes and word construction) and for form in general - for example, biomorphology relates to physical form
postmarital residence pattern in which a couple establishes a new place of residence rather than living with or near either set of parents
neolocal residence
tribe in africe; classic example of an indiginous anarchist political structure without a single leader or leader group
kinship group consisting of parents and children
nuclear family
social father
the set of nonphonemic properties of speech, such as speaking tempo, vocal pitch, and intonational contours, that can be used to communicate attitudes or other shades of meaning
political system ruled by men in which women have inferior social and political status, including basic human rights
significant sound contrast in a language that serves to distinguish meaning, as in minimal pairs
the study of sounds used in speech
marriage with three or more spouses, at the same time
variety of plural marriage in which a man has more than one wife
variety of plural marriage in which a woman had more than one husband
a basic feature of language; the ability to use the rules of one's language to create new expressions comprehensible to other native speakers
a language's meaning system
certain titles that were once honorary take on derogatory meanings; ex. mistress, dame
semantic derogation
communication without words; ex. art, dress, music, etc.
marriage of a given individual to several spouses, but not at the same time
serial monogamy
marked differences in male and female biology besides the contrasts in breasts and genitals
sexual dimorphism
study of relationships between social and linguistic variation; study of language in its social context
if a man’s wife dies or is barren, her sister will marry him and bear him children
the arrangement and order of words in phrases and sentences
complex sociopolitical system that administers a terriory and populace with substantial contrasts in occupation, wealth, prestige, and power. an independent, centrally organized political unit, a government
form of sociopolitical organization usually based on horticulture and pastoralism. socioeconomic stratification and centralized rule are absent in tribes, and there is no means of enforcing political decisions
unilineal descent rule in which people join the father's group automatically and birth and stay members throughout life
patrilineal descent
unilineal descent rule in which people join the mother's group automatically at birth and stay members throughout life
matrilineal descent
a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it
whorf-sapir hypothesis