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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a virus that infects bacteria
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
the heritable genetic information of an organism is stored here.
the building blocks (the monomers) of nucleic acid polymer => 4 types make up DNA
nitrogenous base
a single or double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms with functional groups (nitrogenous means “nitrogen containing”)
the bases thymine (T) and cytosine (C) are single-ring structures.
adenine (A) and guanine (G) are larger, double-ring structures
DNA polymerases
enzymes that make the covalent bonds between the nucleotide of the new DNA strand.
its genetic makeup=> it is the sequence of nucleotide bases in its DNA
the organism’s specific traits=> lies in proteins and their wide variety of functions
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
any nucleic acid whose sugar is ribose rather than the deoxyribose of DNA
a message that leaves the nucleus and directs making proteins in the cytoplasm
Genetic translation
converts nucleic acid language into amino acid language.
a three-base “word” that codes for one amino acid
package of nucleic acid wrapped in a protein
double helix
two strands of nucleotides wound about each other; structure of DNA
DNA replication
process of copying DNA molecules
The Triplet Code
1960’s=> Marshall Nirenberg built a RNA molecule that had Uracil nucleotides called “poly U”=> because it contained only uracil nucleotides, it contained one type of codon: UUU
Messenger RNA(mRNA)
RNA molecule transcribed from a DNA template
RNA polymerase
transcription enzyme that links RNA nucleotides together
internal noncoding regions
the part of the gene that remain in the mRNA and will be translated
RNA splicing
process by which the introns are removed from RNA transcripts and the remaining exons are joined together
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
translates the three-letter codons of mRNA to the amino acids that make up proteins
are complementary to a specific codon in the mRNA
ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA component of ribosomes
physical or chemical agents that cause mutations.