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58 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Central nervous system (CNS)
the bodies main information processing center is made up of the brain and spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system (PNS)
the nervous tissue outside the CNS, delivers information to the CNS and other organs through nerves
Nerve
one or more bundles of neuron fibers, surrounded by connective tissue
Stimulus
information about an environmental change
Sensory Neurons
neurons that carry information about the stimuli to the CNS – some detect stimuli directly – ex. Pain
Sensory Receptors
highly specialized cells
Interneurons
neurons located entirely within the CNS
Motor neurons
neurons that carry signals away from the CNS (ex. Muscle contracting or glands secreting hormones)
Reflex
a rapid automatic response
Reflex arc
the nervous system pathway that regulates a reflex
THE CNS AND PNS CARRY OUT THREE MAIN FUNCTIONS:
SENSORY INPUT
*PNS receives info. about environmental change
*Neurons carry information to sensory neurons
*Most stimuli received by sensory receptors
INTEGRATION
*CNS interprets information
*This involves neurons called interneurons
*Example would be sitting down
MOTOR OUTPUT
*CNS orders a response
*Muscle contraction or secretion of hormone
*Neurons responsible for carrying these signals are called motor neurons
Dendrites
fibers that receive signals and carry then toward the neuron cell body
Axon
a fiber that carries electrical impulses away from the cell body and towards other cells
Myelin sheath
a thick coat of material that insulates the axons of neurons
Nodes
the uninsulated spaces between the myelin sheath
Resting Potential
the voltage across the plasma membrane of a resting neuron (potential = energy)
Depolarization
voltage change – because the charge difference across the membrane decreases
Threshold
a neuron will only fire if the stimulus is strong enough to depolarize the membrane to a certain level
Action potential
stronger depolarization – start of the nerve signal
Synapse
junctions between two neurons or a neuron and another cell where electrical or chemical signals are relayed
Synaptic Cleft
tiny space separating a knob from a transmitting neuron from a receiving neuron or other cell
Neurotransmitters
chemical messenger that carries information from one neuron to another or to another cell (chemical signal mostly consisting of small nitrogen containing organic compounds-def. from chapter
Somatic nervous system
subdivision of the motor division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the voluntary movement of skeletal muscles. Carrys signals form the CNS to skeletal muscles
Autonomic nervous system
Subdivision of the motor division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the internal enviroment. Carries signals to organs such as the intestines, the heart, and the glands.
sympathetic division
increase the general level of activity in the body adn makes more energy available. This division prepares the body for intense activities that consume energy, such as running or taking a difficult exam.
parasympathetic division
calms the body and returns it to regular maintenance functions. It increases your heart rate and glucose release. It also stimulates your digestive systme to continue breaking down food.
cerebrum
the largest and most complex part of the brain, divided into two halves called hemispheres
left hemisphere
controls movement of the right side of your body
right hemisphere
controls movement of the left side of your body
corpus callosum
supports communications between the hemispheres
cerebral cortex
outer region fo the cerebrum
cerebellum
coordination center for body movements
brainstem
lower section of your brain that includes the medulla oblongata, pons,and midbrain
thalamus
sorts information going to and coming from the cerebral cortex
hypothalamus
helps regulate body temperature, blood pressure, hunger, thirst and emotions. Master control of the endocrine system.
limbic system
system of regions of the brain taht interact with the cerebral cortex in emotion and memory.
sensation
an awareness of these sensory stimuli
perception
meaningful interpretations of sensory data.
cornea
transparent area of the sclera, helps to focus the light as it travels to the back of the eyeball
iris
gives your eye the color
pupil
dark opening in the center of the eye, contorls how much light enters it
retina
inner surface of the eye
cones
a type of photoreceptor, stimulate bright light prodcuing the color
rods
a type of photoreceptors taht do not distinquish color but light.
auditory canal
tunal that leads to the eardrum
eardrum
a sheet of tissue that seperates the outer ear from the middle ear.
auditory tube
conducts air between the middle ear and the back of the throat keeping the air pressure equal on either side of the eardrum
tolerance
resistance to a drug's effects such that mor of the drug is needed to produce the same effect
addiction
uncontrollable dependence on a drug
withdrawl
psychological and/or physical symptoms experienced when a person stops taking a drug to which he or she is addicted
stimulant
drug that increases activity in the CNS activity (central nervous system) ex. (caffine, nicotine, adn cocaine)
depressant
drug that decresase or slows down the CNS activity ex. (alcohol or tranquilizers)
marijuana
drug made from dried pieces of hemp plant
hallucinogens
drugs that cause the user to see, hear, and perceive things that do not exist
Ecstasy
a synthetic drug that causes stimulant-like effects such as increased energy level as well as hallucinogen like effects such as an exaggerated emotional attachment to other people
Inhalants
substances that have short term effects such as speech, clumsiness, and increased heart rate