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21 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the use of organisms to perform practical tasks for humans
recombinant DNA technology
combines genes from different sources (even different species) into a single DNA molecule
a small, circular DNA molecule separate from the much larger bacterial chromosome
restrition enzyme
tools used to cut DNA
DNA ligse
"pastes" sticky ends together, repairing the backbone.
Genomic library
the completecollection of cloned DNA fragments from an molecule
Nucleic Acid Probe
teh complementary, radioactively labeled nucleic acid molecule
Genetically modified organisms (GMO)
any organism taht has acquired one or more genes by artificial means
what a GMO is if the source fot eh new genetic material is form a different species
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
is a technique that makes many copies of a certain segment of DNA without using living cells. It is used to make large enough samples of DNA for further analysis.
Gel electrophoresis
a useful technique for sorting molecules of fragments of molecules by length
genetic markers
radioactive probes that detect similar DNA fragments
DNA fingerprint
banding pattern produced by restriction fragments
cluster of genes and control sequences
first control sequence, the site where RNA polumerase attaches to DNA
acts like a switch, determining whether or not RNA plymerase can attach to the promoter
turns off transcription; a protein that functions by binding to the operator and blocking the attachment of RNA polymerase to the promoter
Transcription factors
regulate transcription by binding to those promoters or to RNA polymerases
cellular differentiations
as embryo continues to develop, cell become increasingly specialized in structure and function
stem cells
certain groups of cells that remain undifferentiated
homeotic genes
master control genes that direct development of body parts in specific locations in many organisms