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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Pathogens
disease causing organisms or viruses
Infectious diseases
diseases that are caused by pathogens
Nonspecific defenses
barriers that do not distinguish one invader from another
Inflammatory response
a nonspecific defense characterized by redness, heat, swelling and pain
Histamine
a chemical alarm signal released by massed cells that causes blood vessels to dialate during an inflammatory response
Interferon
a family of proteins produced by cells in response to becoming infected by a virus
Immunity
body is resistant to the pathogen that causes a specific disease
Antigen
a large molecule that is usually a protein that provokes an immune response
Antibodies
proteins found on the surface of a certain white blood cell or in blood plasma that attach to particular antigens
B cells
a lymphocytes that matures in bone marrow and produces antibodies; responsible for humoral immunity
T cells
lymphocytes that mature in the thymus; is responsible for cell-mediated immunity and also plays a role in humoral immunity
Plasma cell
produces and secretes antibodies specific to the antigen that activated the original B cell
Humoral immunity
specific immunity produced by B cells that produce antibodies that circulate in body fluids
Cell mediated immunity
a type of immunity produced by T cells that attack infected or abnormal body cells
Cytotoxic T cells
lymphocytes that attack body cells infected with pathogens
Helper T cells
lymphocyte that activites cytotoxic T-cells and stimulates B cells to produce antibodies
Memory cells
long lasting lymphocytes that are formed during the primary immune response that is re-activated on exposure to the same pathogen quickly producing many clones
Vaccine
a dose of a pathogen or part of a pathogen that has been disabled or destroyed so it is no longer harmful
Active immunity
immunity provided by the body; when the body produces it’s own antibodies against an antigen; result from exposure to the antigen (infection or vaccine)
Passive immunity
a resistance to a particular pathogen that results when the body acquires antibodies for it; as when a baby receives antibodies from its mother
Allergy
an abnormal over-sensitivity to an otherwise non-harmful antigen called an allergen
Autoimmune disease
a disorder in which the immune system attacks the bodies own molecules
AIDS
acquired immune deficiency syndrome – the late stages of HIV infection
HIV
human immunodeficiency virus – causes AIDS
The First Line: Barriers
*physical barrier: bodies first line of defense is skin (nonspecific defenses)
*chemical barriers: sweat (lysozyme – breaks down cell walls of many bacteria) and oil glands
*saliva and tears protect disease from entering the mouth and eyes
*digestive and respiratory passageways are lined with mucous membranes – another barrier
Second Line: Internal Nonspecific Defenses
Second line of defense: pathogen destroying white blood cells, the inflammatory response, and certain specialized proteins
*macrophages (“big eaters”) –found mostly in interstitial fluid – when it encounters a pathogen it engulfs the organism – lysozyme kills the pathogen
*neutrophils – smaller and more numerous in the body than macrophages, also kill pathogens by phagocytosis(cellular eating) – produces a chemical similar to bleach that may also kill the neutraphil
*natural killer cell (NK) –do not attack pathogens directly, they recognize infected body cells and kill them by releasing chemicals that poke holes in the infected cell’s membrane –play a key role in defending against cancer by killing abnormal cells before they can form a tumor
*inflammatory response