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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Integumentary System
covers body -protects from injury, infection, excessive heat or cold, drying
Skeletal System
provides body support, protects certain organs, works with the muscular system in body movements
Muscular System
Enables body movement and facial expressions, essential to human communication
Nervous System
Coordinates body activities by detecting stimuli and directing the bodies responses
Digestive System
ingests food, breaks down into smaller chemical units, eliminates undigested material
Circulatory System
delivers oxygen and nutrients to body cells and transports waste products to organs
Respiratory System
exchanges gases with the environment
Endocrine System
secretes hormones -affect the functions of target cells -regulates activities of other organ systems
Excretory System
removes waste, regulates chemical make up of blood
Lymphatic System
supports function of circulatory system – returns fluid to blood vessels near heart; part of the immune system
Immune System
defends body against infections and cancer cells
Reproductive System
– produces gametes; female – provides organs needed to support a developing embryo
Levels of body structure
cell – tissue – organ – organ system - organism
Epithelial tissue
closely packed cells covering entire surface of body forming lining for organs
Connective tissue
main function is to hold together and support other tissues, and to cushion, insulate and connect organs
Nervous Tissue
forms the communication system that makes behavior possible
basic unit of nervous tissue, or the nerve cell
Skeletal muscle
voluntary muscle, attached to the bones of your skeleton, allowing you to move various parts of your body
Involuntary muscle
a muscle that works without you controlling it
Cardiac Muscle
muscles that cause your heart to pump blood and contain cardiac muscle tissue
Smooth muscle
involuntary muscles that contain smooth muscle tissue, found in most of your organs, perform many necessary functions without you having to think about them
internal stability or “steady state” maintained by your body
signal molecules that are released by glands into the bloodstream, carried to other parts of your body where they trigger particular responses
Interstitial fluid
the internal exchange takes place through an aqueous solution – fills gaps between cells in the tissue
Integumentary system
the body’s outer covering, separates the body from the external environment
the outermost layer of your skin
the pigmented protein that gives your skin color
the skin layer that lies beneath and supports the epidermis, made mostly of fiberous connective tissue, give the skin it’s strength and elacticity
tissue layer below the dermis, contains tissue adipose
a kind of connective tissue , fat storing cells & blood vessels
Hair & Nails
part of the integumentary system – composed of Keratin (protein) – hair is formed in pockets called follicles – follicle cells produce and deposit Keratin at the base of each hair shaft causing it to grow – nails are also made of Keratin grow when living cells push it outward
backbone – which supports the spinal cord consists of these small bones
type of connective tissue softer than bone –found between vertebraes-
Cartilage Disks
act as cushions between vertebrae and permit the spinal cord to twist and bend
specialized tissue that many bones contain –
an area where one bone meets another bone
Immovable Joints
allow little or no movement (ex. Bones in your skull & ribs)
strong fiberous connective tissue – hold together bones in movable joints
involves inflammation of the joints
a disorder in which bones become thinner, more porous and more easily broken.
muscle attached to a bone by a type of dense connective tissue.
Muscle fiber
a single long cylindrical muscle cell that contains many nuclei
bundles of smaller units found inside a muscle fiber-alternating light and dark bands (also known as striated muscle or striped)
the muscle fiber’s basic unit of action- the unit that contracts. Composed of two kinds of filaments- thin and thick –composed of protein actin and myosin
protein that compose the thin filaments and have a twisted, ropelike structure.
proteins that compose the thick filaments and have bump like projections called myosin heads
Steps in contraction
1. myosin head bind to thin filaments
2. myosin heads bend pulling filaments to center of sarcomere
3. ATP then binds to each head releasing it from thin filament
4. Myosin now free to attach to a new spot and further pull the thin filament along

5. The sarcomere shortens
6. process continues until sarcomere is fully contracted
7. sarcomeres shorten together – entire muscle contracts
*Note: filaments don’t get shorter by themselves as they slide across one another their overlap increases
the study of the structure of an organism and its parts
is the study of what structures do and how they do it
unit of similar cells – perform specific function
several tissues together form specific tasks
Organ system
multiple organs perform body function