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50 Cards in this Set

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alimentary canal
A digestive tract consisting of a tube running between a mouth and an anus.
ammonite
A shelled cephalopod that was the dominant invertebrate predator for millions of years until the end of the Cretaceous period.
amoebocyte
An amoeba-like cell that moves by pseudopodia, found in most animals; depending on the species, may digest and distribute food, dispose of wastes, form skeletal fibers, fight infections, and change into other cell types.
arthropod
A segmented coelomate with a chitinous exoskeleton, jointed appendages, and a body formed of distinct groups of segments.
book lung
An organ of gas exchange in spiders, consisting of stacked plates contained in an internal chamber.
brachiopod
A marine lophophorate with a shell divided into dorsal and ventral halves. Brachiopods are also called lamp shells.
chelicera
One of a pair of clawlike feeding appendages characteristic of cheliceriforms.
cheliceriform
An arthropod that has chelicera, and a body divided into a cephalothorax and an abdomen. Living cheliceriforms include sea spiders, horseshoe crabs, scorpions, ticks, and spiders.
choanocyte
A flagellated feeding cell found in sponges. Also called a collar cell, it has a collar-like ring that traps food particles around the base of its flagellum.
closed circulatory system
A circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels and is kept separate from the interstitial fluid.
cnidocyte
A specialized cell for which the phylum Cnidaria is named; contains a capsule containing a fine coiled thread, which, when discharged, functions in defense and prey capture.
complete metamorphosis
The transformation of a larva into an adult that looks very different, and often functions very differently in its environment, than the larva.
copepod
Any of a group of small crustaceans that are important members of marine and freshwater plankton communities.
crustacean
A member of a subphylum of arthropods that includes lobsters, crayfish, crabs, shrimps, and barnacles.
cuticle
(1) A waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants. (2) The exoskeleton of an arthropod, consisting of layers of protein and chitin that are variously modified for different functions. (3) A tough coat that covers the body of a nematode.
decapod
A member of the group of crustaceans that includes lobsters, crayfish, crabs, and shrimp.
echinoderm
A slow-moving or sessile marine deuterostome with a water vascular system and, in adults, radial anatomy. Echinoderms include sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, feather stars, and sea cucumbers.
ectoproct
A sessile, colonial lophophorate commonly called a bryozoan.
eurypterid
An extinct carnivorous cheliceriform also called a water scorpion.
exoskeleton
A hard encasement on the surface of an animal, such as the shell of a mollusc or the cuticle of an arthropod, that provides protection and points of attachment for muscles.
foot
(1) The portion of a bryophyte sporophyte that gathers sugars, amino acids, water, and minerals from the parent gametophyte via transfer cells. (2) One of the three main parts of a mollusc; a muscular structure usually used for movement.
gastrovascular cavity
An extensive pouch that serves as the site of extracellular digestion and a passageway to disperse materials throughout most of an animal’s body.
hermaphrodite
An individual that functions as both male and female in sexual reproduction by producing both sperm and eggs.
hexopod
An insect or closely related wingless arthropod.
incomplete metamorphosis
A type of development in certain insects, such as grasshoppers, in which the young (called nymphs) resemble adults but are smaller and have different body proportions. The nymph goes through a series of molts, each time looking more like an adult, until it reaches full size.
invertebrate
An animal without a backbone. Invertebrates make up 95% of animal species.
isopod
A member of one of the largest groups of crustaceans, which includes terrestrial, freshwater, and marine species. Among the terrestrial isopods are the pill bugs, or wood lice.
mandible
One of a pair of jaw-like feeding appendages found in myriapods, hexapods, and crustaceans.
mantle
A fold of tissue in molluscs that drapes over the visceral mass and may secrete a shell.
mantle cavity
A water-filled chamber that houses the gills, anus, and excretory pores of a mollusc.
medusa
The floating, flattened, mouth-down version of the cnidarian body plan. The alternate form is the polyp.
mesohyl
A gelatinous region between the two layers of cells of a sponge.
molting
A process in arthropods in which the exoskeleton is shed at intervals, allowing growth by the production of a larger exoskeleton.
myriapod
A terrestrial arthropod with many body segments and one or two pairs of legs per segment. Millipedes and centipedes comprise the two classes of living myriapods.
nematocyst
A stinging, capsule-like organelle in a cnidocyte.
open circulatory system
A circulatory system in which fluid called hemolymph bathes the tissues and organs directly and there is no distinction between the circulating fluid and the interstitial fluid.
osculum
A large opening in a sponge that connects the spongocoel to the environment.
parthenogenesis
A type of reproduction in which females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs.
phoronids
A tube-dwelling marine lophophorate.
planarian
A free-living flatworm found in unpolluted ponds and streams.
polyp
The sessile variant of the cnidarian body plan. The alternate form is the medusa.
radula
A straplike rasping organ used by many molluscs during feeding.
spongocoel
The central cavity of a sponge.
suspension-feeder
An aquatic animal, such as a clam or a baleen whale, that sifts small food particles from the water.
torsion
A characteristic of gastropods in which the body rotates during development.
trilobite
An extinct arthropod with pronounced segmentation and appendages that varied little from segment to segment.
trochophore larva
Distinctive larval stage observed in annelids and molluscs.
tube foot
One of numerous extensions of an echinoderm’s water vascular system. Tube feet function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange.
visceral mass
One of the three main parts of a mollusc, containing most of the internal organs.
water vascular system
A network of hydraulic canals unique to echinoderms that branches into extensions called tube feet, which function in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange.