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68 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Trace elements
elements that an organism only need minute quantities of and only in certain species
Neurons
electrically neutral
Protons
one positive charge
Electrons
one negative charge
Atomic nucleus
dense core of neutrons, protons and electrons at the center of an atoms
What makes electrons move?
the attraction between opposite charges
What two subatomic particles are almost identical in mass?
protons and neutrons
Dalton
atomic mass unit
Which two subatomic particles balance each other with equal presence?
protons and electrons
Stable isotope
does not tend to lose particles
Radioactive isotope
nucleus decays spontaneously and gives off particles and energy
What kind of subatomic particles interact in chemical reactions?
electrons
Potential energy
the energy that matter stores because of its position or location
Energy level/electron shell
different states of potential energy that electrons in an atom have
Valence electrons
the outer electrons in a shell
What makes an atom chemically unreactive?
having a completed valance
Orbital
the 3 dimensional space where an election is found 90% of the time. No more than 2 electrons to each
What particles are involved when atoms interact to complete their valence shells?
the unpaired electrons
Chemical bond
attractions that cause atoms to stay close together
Molecule
two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
Structural formula
notation that represents both atoms and bonding (H-----H)
Molecular formula
indicates what atoms a molecule consists of
Double covalent bond
when two pairs of valence electrons are joined to make a molecule
Valence
the bonding capacity of an atom, how many covalent bonds it can form. Usually equals the number of unpaired electrons in the atom’s outermost (valence) shell.
Electronegativity of an atom
the attraction for the electrons of a covalent bond
Nonpolar covalent bond
electrons are shared equally between the atoms
Polar covalent bond
a bond of atoms where the electrons are not shared equally
Ionic compounds/salts
compounds formed by ionic bonds
Van der waals interactions
weak interactions that occur only when atoms and molecules are very close together because of the constant movement of electrons that makes it possible for them to randomly gather in one area.
Matter
anything that takes up space and has mass
Element
substance that can’t be broken down into another substance
Atom
the smallest unit with physical and chemical properties of an element
Atomic number
number of protons in nucleus (also tells the number of electrons because they are the same). Does not change.
Mass number
protons + neutrons
Isotope
element with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons
Energy
the ability to work
Potential energy
stored energy due to position
How can electrons move to other energy levels
absorbing or loosing energy
Valence electrons
electrons in the outermost shell (used for bonding)
Stable elements
outermost shell is full
Unstable elements
outermost shell is incomplete
How many electrons does the first shell hold?
2
How many electrons do the outer shells usually hold?
8
Covalent bond
sharing of a pair of valence electrons
Nonpolar covalent bond
equal sharing of electrons in a covalent bond. I.e. methane
Polar covalent bond
unequal sharing of electrons due to electronegativity. The most electronegative atoms will pull the electrons closer to it resulting in a slight negative charge. I.e. Water molecules
Ionic bond
completely transfer of electrons resulting in charge atoms (opposite charges attract forming a bond)
Anion
negatively charged atoms
Cation
positively charged atom
Hydrogen bond
occurs when a hydrogen atom is currently bonded to one electronegative action and is also attracted to another electronegative atom
Chemical reactions
making or breaking of chemical bonds leading to changes in composition of matter.
Mass
the amount of matter in an object (interchangeable with weight on earth)
Compound
made of 2 elements with a fixed ratio
Atomic weight
the total mass of an atom
None
Valence shell
outermost electrons
None
Ion
chemical equilibrium. an atom or atom group that is charged because of a loss or gain of electrons
None
Ca
calcium
K
potassium
Na
sodium
Mg
magnesium
P
phosphorus
S
sulfur
Cl
chlorine
What is one reason for radioactive isotopes in biology
they save lives when helping to diagnose kidney disorders
What is one reason against radioactive isotopes in biology
when they decay they can damage molecules in cells
Why are helium, neon and argon chemically unreactive
they are stable because they do not tend to loose molecules
None
What is the advantage of weak bonds?
they are easily broken and can work for a short time as with chemical signaling in the brain
Why is molecular shape important?
molecules need to be shaped a certain way to function the way they should like when they need to pass information in the brain.