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66 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the instruments used in Japanese music?
shakuhachi- flute
shamisen- banjoish
koto- plucked zither
3 stringed banjo-like instrument
What are the 7 characteristics of Japanese music?
1. based on pentatonic scales
2. sense of space (silence enhances sound)
3. jo-ha-kyu (formal rhythmic concept)
4. heterophonic/monophonic
5. large variety of tone colors
6. flexibility of pulse
7. variation, not improv
maximum effect from a deliberately restricted amount of material
a formal rhythmic concept. the pulse starts slow and speeds up a lot, coming down suddenly to end
the beauty of imperfection- things ought to be natural
describe japanese scales
pentatonic- 2 types
the "In" scale which has 1/2 steps
the "Yo" scale which has no 1/2 steps
Orchestra for the emperor
silence is just as important as is sound
In Japanese music______is just as important as is _____.
silence; sound
Describe Min Yo.
Japanese folk music. uses shamisen (banjo) and voice.
Describe Karaoke, by defining "enka"
enka- sentimental, nostalgic variety of songs
Taiko Drumming
Japanese, only drums
What are the characteristics of Chinese Teahouse Music (4)
1. uses pentatonic scale
2. monophonic/heterophonic
3. variation/ornamentation not imprv
4. si zhu- silk and bamboo music
si zhu

Jia Hua
means silk and bamboo music

adding flowers--ornamentation
Chinese zither
instrument of Confucius, and elite of society
7 strings
Guqin pieces have a connection with ______, for example: ________
nature; Wild Geese Descending onto the Sandbanks
Describe the difference between Chinese and Japanese music.
Both Chinese and Japanese music are relatively simple, but Chinese music doesn't have the same emphasis on empty space the Japanese music does- they always create something to listen to.
Cosmology of the Guqin
-3'6.5" long=365 days in year
-top soundboard is convex to represent heaven
-lower soundboard is flat = earth
-players lines up his heart w/ 5th stud= significance of "5" in Chinese thought
Beijing Opera 4 character types
jing=painted face
male opera character
female opera character
painted face opera character
clown opera character
instruments in the Beijing Opera Orchestra
jinghu- high violin
ban-clappers (2 sticks)
luo- cymbals
Describe the Beijing opera
-all movements highly stylized
-elaborate make-up and costumes
-no sets/props/lighting
-women used to be banned, men played their roles
What instruments are used in Javanese gamelan music?
metallophones (of all varieties, bronze=best)
round/slab gongs
drummer (conductor)
flute (circular breathing)
Describe colotomic structure
-instruments always play at certain divisions of the rhythmic cycle
-very cyclical, gongan=rhythmic cycle
-melody and elaboration
-16 beats=most common gongan
-very organized, like clockwork
rhythmic cycle in Javanese gamelan
In Javanese gamelan music, the drums have ________ names
Name the gong types in Javanese gamelan.
gong suwakan
describe the gong
low rumble, always plays on the last beat
the fluctuation in sound of a gong (javanese gamelan)
describe the kenong
high, bell-like sound
sound= "nong"
plays on beats 4,8,12,16
describe the kempul
warm tone, no ombak (oscillation)
sound= "pul"
plays on beats 6/10/14
describe the kethuk
low, dull thud (triple stroke)
sound= "tuk"
plays on every other beat (odd numbered)
describe the gong suwakan
smaller version of gong, used for religious holidays
loud playing style
-uses only metallophones and drum
-played at functions, not just for music's sake
-melody is simple and remains steady
softer playing style
-softer metallophones + violin, flute, zither, (voice)
-sounds heterophonic, but is called "stratified polyphony"
stratified polyphony
term used to describe the soft playing style of Javanese gamelan music
What are the 2 scales used in Javanese gamelan music, and how are they different?
1. slendro scale. 5 notes, equally spaced

2. pelog scale. 7 notes. unequally spaced
Javanese scale with 5 notes that are equally spaced
Javanese scale with 7 notes that are unequally spaced
Javanese, means melody
Describe Gamelan yong Kebyar (hint: tuning)
it has a throbbing shimmery sound obtained by playing in pairs, w/ one instrument tuned a tiny bit lower (also called "ombak")
to burst open, sudden flair
virtuostic, fast elaborations
-players share a melody by each playing 1/2 the notes and combining the parts into one steady stream
keeps the beat so the kotekan players can stay together
cheng cheng
many small cymbals joined together on a wood block (v. percussive)
Describe the structure of balinese gamelan music.
there are periods of stability (cyclical, elaborative) contrasting with periods of action (kebyar, random and sudden stops/starts)
what does instrumental stratification mean, as applied to Balinese music?
lowest instruments play the least; highest pitched instruments play the most
Irama level
the level of rhythmic density, relative to the balungan (basic melody)
Islamic pop music
Islamic song
Portuguese-derived music
Sundanese pop (from Western Java, strong drumming tradition)
Chinese recordins
Guqin and Beijing Opera
japanese flute recording
shakuhachi and shamisen, "Tsuru no sugomori"
Japanese short song recording
Kouta, "Hakusen No"
Japanese folk song w/ shamisen recording
Min yo folk song, "nikata-bushi"
Japanese drumming recording
japanese karaoke recording
enka song, "naite nagasaki"
Javanese gamelan recording w/ loud playing style
Burbaran "Kembang Pacar"
Javanese shadow puppet theatre recording
Playon "Lasem"
Balinese gamelan recording
gong kebyar "Kosalia Arini"
Sundanese (Java) ethno-jazz fusion recording
Zen Buddhism's connection
it is the basis of much Japanese music. In shakuhachi music, the music is considered one of the many paths to enlightenment.
ex/ breathing is crucial (zen), heightened awareness, etc.