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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
system that places Earth at the center of the universe
_____- the universe is a series of centric spheres one inside the other
Ptolemaic system
sun- centered
law that explains why the planetary bodies do not go off in a straight line, but instead continue in elliptical orbits about the Sun, also states that every in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity
universal law of gravitation
system of thought based on the belief that reason is the chief source of knowledge
a systematic procedure for collecting and analyzing evidence
scientific method
the doctrine that scientist should proceed from the particular to the general by making systematic observations and carefully organized experiments to test hypothesis , a process that will lead to correct general principle
inductive reasoning
greatest astronomer of antiquity
Polish, a mathematician, heliocentric
Nicholas Copernicus
first European to make regular observations of the heavens using telescope
Galileo Galilei
wrote Principia, defined the three laws of motion that govern the planetary bodies, universal law of gravitation
Isaac Newton
college Isaac Newton attended
Cambridge University
one of he first scientist to conduct controlled experiments
Robert Boyle
one of the most prominent female scientists of the seventeenth century
Margaret Cavendish
the most famous of the female astronomers in Germany
Maria Winkelmann
French philosopher, father of rationalism
Rene Descartes
an English philosopher, believed scientists should use inductive reasoning
Francis Bacon
French name meaning philosopher
a form of government in which the executive, legislative and judicial branches limit and control each other through a system of checks and balances
separation of powers
an eighteenth century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law
"to let the people do what they want to do"
the concept proposed by Rouseau that an entire society agrees to be governed by its general will, and all individuals should be forced to abide by the general will since it represents what is best for the entire community
social contract
the elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class's great urban houses
seventeenth century Englishmen, who argued people are born with a tabula rasa, or blank slate
John Locke
French noble, who wrote the Spirit of the Laws, he made his work available for the U.S. Constitution
the greatest figure of the Enlightenment, criticized Christianity and belief in religious toleration
became Freeland writer, wrote Encyclopedia
Denis Diderot
believed the state should not interfere with the economic matters
Adam Smith
philosophe, presented social contract, sought balance between heart and mind, between emotion and reason
Jean - Jaques Rousseau
English writer, viewed as founder of the modern European and American movement for women's rights
Mary Wollstonecraft
an Anglican minister, Methodism
John Wesley
new artistic style, emphasized grace, charm and gentle action; replaced baroque, and was highly secular
a system in which rulers tried to govern by Enlightenment principles while maintaining their full royal powers
enlightened absolutism
a renowned organist as well as a composer
German who spent much of his career in England; religious music; Messiah
spent most of his life as a musical director for Hungarian princes
a true child prodigy
one of the best educated and most cultured monarchs in the eighteenth century, ruler of Prussia
Fredrick the Great
inherited the Austrian throne in 1740, she worked to centralize the Austrian Empire and strengthen the power of the state
Maria Theresa
ruled Russia, successor to Peter the Great
Catherine the Great
Montesquieu identified 3 basic kings of government:
1. republics
2. despotism
3. monarchies
Adam Smith gave government 3 basic roles
1. protecting society from invasion (army)
2. defending citizens from injustice (police)
3. keeping up certain public works
Contrast the Ptolemaic system of the universe to the one developed by Copernicus.
Ptolemaic system: Earth was center and motionless, all planets made of crystal like, transparent substance, prime mover ( gave motion to others)
Copernicus: heliocentric(sun- centered)planets revolved around Sun. Sun Earth mvmnt caused by the daily rotation of the earth on its axis and yearly trip
why did the Catholic Church condemn the work of Galileo in the seventeenth century?
he used Copernicus's conception, did not put God in a specific place, and people were not center
Explain the influence of Isaac Newton and John Locke on Enlightenment thinkers.
world and everything in it was like a giant machine. intellectuals believed they could discover the natural laws that governed human society, and produce an ideal society.
Locke's idea that people were molded by experiences, so if environments were changed people were exposed to right influences, then people could be changed and a new society created
List the primary occupations of the philosophes.
social reformers
What did Rousseau mean when he stated that if any individual wants to pursue his own self-interests "He will be forced to be free"? Do you agree or disagree with Rousseaus's ideas? why?
That in order for one to be free he/she must agree to follow guidelines to better the community. Yes, I agree, because without guidelines it is hard to have liberty.
Describe the characteristics of an ideal enlightened ruler. Do any of the eighteenth-century rulers have the characteristics of an ideal ruler?
Enlightened rulers allow religious toleration, freedom of speech and press, an the rights of private property. They nurture the arts and sciences, and education. Also, they obey the laws and enforce them fairly for all subjects. Joseph II
List all the countries in the world that fought in the Seven Years' War. Which country gained the most territory?
Britain Austrians
Prussians Russians
why were Enlightenment ideas never fully practiced by eighteenth-century rulers?
because rulers were concerned with a balance of power, and there was not an overwhelming desire for peace.
most took priorities such as strengthening the state and maintaining the existing system first.