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67 Cards in this Set

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biological determinism
a general theory holding that a group’s biological or genetic makeup shapes its social, political, and economic destiny; a view is used to justify women’s subordination, or the subordination of peoples of color on the argument that they are biologically or genetically different from, and usually inferior to, men or white people.
commodification of women
the process of turning people and intangibilities into things, or commodities, for sale; an example is the commodification of women’s bodies through advertising and cultural practices.
compulsory heterosexuality
refers to the idea that heterosexuality, as a default sexual orientation, can be adopted by people regardless of their personal sexual preferences.
gender expression
communication or perception of gender. ranges from male to androgenous to female.
gender identity
psychological identity. man to bi-gendered/two spirit/ third gender.
gender performativity
Butler characterizes gender as the effect of reiterated acting, one that produces the effect of a static or normal gender while obscuring the contradiction and instability of any single person's gender act. This effect produces what we can consider to be 'true gender', a narrative that is sustained by "the tacit collective agreement to perform, produce, and sustain discrete and polar genders as cultural fictions is obscured by the credibility of those productions – and the punishments that attend not agreeing to believe in them."[1] The performative acts which Butler is discussing she names to be performative and within the larger social, unseen world, they exist within performativity.
internalized oppression
the manner in which an oppressed group comes to use against itself the methods of the oppressor. For example, sometimes members of marginalized groups hold an oppressive view toward their own group, or start to believe in negative stereotypes of themselves.
a sociological theory suggesting that—and seeking to examine how—various socially and culturally constructed categories of discrimination interact on multiple and often simultaneous levels, contributing to systematic social inequality. Intersectionality holds that the classical models of oppression within society, such as those based on race/ethnicity, gender, religion, nationality, sexual orientation, class, or disability do not act independently of one another; instead, these forms of oppression interrelate creating a system of oppression that reflects the "intersection" of multiple forms of discrimination.[
levels of analysis
micro: personal, individual
meso: community, neighborhood
macro: national
global: global
matrix of oppression and resistance
refer to how differences among people (sexual orientation, class, race, age, etc.) serve as oppressive measures towards females, and ultimately change the experiences of living as a woman in society.
objectification of women
degrade to the status of a mere object: a deeply sexist attitude that objectifies women.
Systematic organization of male supremacy that gives men systematic advantages over women
reproductive health
Contraception, abortion
Information and access to pre-natal and post-natal care,
Forced child-bearing.
reproductive justice
Reproductive justice is a concept linking reproductive health with social justice. The term emerged from the work of reproductive health organizations for women of color in the United States in the 1990s.
sexual orientation
romantic/erotic response. ranges from attracted to women to pansexual and bisexual to attracted to men.
situated knowledges
Situated knowledge is knowledge specific to a particular situation
social location
Social location basically has to do with a person's place in society. It has to do with a person's race, gender, sexuality. It also is a key element in understanding who a person is.
socially lived theorizing
means that each of you theorizes from the place you are standing. Your theories emerge from your experience.
standpoint theory
An individual's unique world perspective
A standpoint is a place from which human beings view the world.
A standpoint influences how the people adopting it socially construct the world.
Social group membership affects people's standpoints.
The inequalities of different social groups create differences in their standpoints.
All standpoints are partial; so (for example) Standpoint feminism coexists with other standpoints.
cult of thinness
proposes that thin is beautiful and will make you happy
working with others as a result of deepening understanding of one another's lives, experiences, and goals
battered women syndrome
A pattern of signs and symptoms, such as fear and a perceived inability to escape, appearing in women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period by a husband or other dominant individual.
beauty myth
It examines beauty as a demand and as a judgment upon women. Subtitled How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women, Wolf examines how modern conceptions of women's beauty impact the spheres of employment, culture, religion, sexuality, eating disorders, and cosmetic surgery.
Wolf argues that women in Western culture are damaged by the pressure to conform to an idealized concept of female beauty—the Iron Maiden throughout modern society, from Victorian Times to today. She argues that the beauty myth is political, a way of maintaining the patriarchal system. It allows women to enter the labour force, but under controlled conditions.
blame the victim syndrome
an analysis or recommended course of action that attributes responsibility for a problem to those who experience it. an example is to urge women not to be alone at night out, for their safety, rather than to curb male violence against women.
comparable worth
a method of evaluating jobs that are traditionally defined as men's work or women's work- in terms of the knowledge and skills required for a particular job; the mental demands or decsiions making involved; the accountability or degree of supervision involved; and working conditions, such as how physically safe the job is- so as to eliminate inequities in pay based on gender
cultural meaning of advertisments
relies on the cultural knowledge and background of the reader. We all 'make sense' of ads by relating them to our culture and to the shared belief systems held in common by most people
cultural workers
Jobs that support and construct the current ideals in culture. For instance, advertisers, directors, publishers, or actors.
the identity of women is associated with the anonymity of body parts. 
A body part stands in for the woman as object
the act of romanticizing elements of something, like a culture, that is foreign to oneself
export processing zone
labor intensive manufacturing centers that involve the import of raw materials or components and the export of factory products
National import duties and local and environmental laws are often suspended
formal sector of work
All the jobs offering hourly wages and benefits but also taxed and monitored.
gender violence
Violence perpetuated against women because of their gender
A broad range of violent acts perpetrated by men upon women
Grounded in macro-level systemic inequalities based on hierarchies of power
Affects all women
gender-wage gap
Male–female income disparity, also referred to as a "gender gap in earnings", in the United States, also known as the "gender wage gap," the "gender earnings gap" and the "gender pay gap", is used by government agencies and economists to refer to statistics gathered by the U.S. Census Bureau, as part of the Current Population Survey, comparing median male wages to median female wages.
glass ceiling
an unseen barrier to women's promotion to senior positions in the workplace. Women can see the senior positions in their company or field, but few women reach them because of negative attitudes toward senior women and low perceptions of their abilities and training. This barrier may also be based on race/ethnicity.
contemporary form of cultural and economic integration facilitated by electronic media, international financial institutions, trade agreements, and national immigration policies
hierarchy of oppression
believing one group’s experienced oppression is worse than another.
hostile environment
unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors and verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature.
human security
Human security is an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. Human security holds that a people-centered view of security is necessary for national, regional and global stability
identity politics
activism and politics that put identtiy at the center. This usually involves the assumption that a particular characterisitc, such as race, ethnicity, or sexual orientation, is the most important in the lives of group members and that the group is not differentiated according to other characteristics in a significant way
identity based politics
activism and policits that have a strong identity component but also a broader view that allows people to make connections to other groups and issues
informal sector of work
Another work that doesn’t get counted is paid work in informal sector like women sitting on the side of the road selling food. Also, women do domestic work that is paid under table.

- no taxes
internalized domination
– ex. NGO groups helping others. When we have been privileged and unconsciously assume that privilege and say we know what you need and we know what is best for you.
internalized oppression
attitudes and behavior of some oppressed people that reflect the negative, harmful, sterotypical beliefs of the dominant group directed at them.
international economic institutions
international network of commercial orginazations who generate, distribute, and purchase goods and services i.e. manufacturers, producers, wholesalers, retailers, and buyers
The legal union of a couple as spouses: a legal contract 
(1) the parties' legal ability to marry each other, 
(2) mutual consent of the parties,
(3) a marriage contract as required by law [religious ceremony not required]
(4) Chiefly regulated by the states but state law cannot prohibit marriage in the absence of a valid reason
mommy tax
– hourly wages drop 7% for each child.
When women leave work force, she loses experience and seniority.
mommy tax is not supportive of families
national security
the requirement to maintain the survival of the nation-state through the use of economic, military and political power and the exercise of diplomacy.
economic philosophy and policies that call for the freedom of business to operate with minimal interference from governments, international organizations, or labor unions. Basic tenets include the rule of the market, free trade, economic deregulation, privatization of government owned industries, reduction of social welfare spending, and belief in individual responsiblity rather than valuing community and the public good. Termed neo liberal because it calls for a revival of the free market philosophy that prevailed in the US through the 1800s and early 1900s prior to the enhanced role of govt that gained legitimacy during the depression culminating in the war on poverty and other great society programs
attitudes and behaviors by which people are treated as if they were "things" One example is the objectification of women through advertising images
occupational segregation
the distribution of groups defined by ascribed characteristics, mostly gender, across occupations. More basically, it is the concentration of a similar group of people (be they males, females, whites, blacks, etc) in a job. Occupational segregation levels differ on a basis of perfect segregation and integration. Perfect segregation occurs where occupation and group membership correspond perfectly, where no job is populated by more than one group.
pay equity
When jobs filled mostly by women are judged "comparable" to jobs filled mostly by men, wages for both should be the same.
comparable worth
performance/art as activism
expressing ideas through poems, speeches, painting murals, dance, song, organizing a film series etc.
politics of scarcity
there just isn’t enough to go around. It is a fatalistic belief. If we believe in it, we won’t do anything and it tends to justify the fact that there will always be people who don’t have equal rights.
quid pro quo
making conditions of employment (hiring, promotion, retention, etc.) contingent on the victim’s providing sexual favors.
rape trauma
term used by mental health and legal professionals to refer to women's coping strategies following rape
reproductive work
this domestic labor includes biological and social reproduction, mainly done by women, to maintain daily life, raise children, care for elders, and so on. It is often considered unproductive because it is unwaged, but it is fundamental to the ability to do waged work
second shift
responsibilities for household chores and child care mostly by women after having already done a full day's work outside the home
sexual harrassment
intimidation, bullying or coercion of a sexual nature, or the unwelcome or inappropriate promise of rewards in exchange for sexual favors.[
sexual objectification
refers to the practice of regarding or treating another person merely as an instrument (object) towards the person's sexual pleasure
sticky floor
structural limiations for women in low-paid, low-status jobs that block them from moving up.
structural adjustment policies
a term used to describe the policy changes implemented by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (the Bretton Woods Institutions) in developing countries. These policy changes are conditions (Conditionalities) for getting new loans from the IMF or World Bank, or for obtaining lower interest rates on existing loans.
surface meaning of advertisments
consists of the overall impression that a reader might get from quickly studying the advertisement...you can describe this surface level of meaning by simply listing all the objects and people in the ad
unhealthy, oppressive working conditions. Little voice or pay. extremely exploitative.
third wave feminism
feminist perspectives adopted in the 1990s, often by younger women, with an emphasis on personal voice and multiple identities, intersectionality, ambiguity, and contradicitions
when people are tricked and forced to work with little to no payment on exploitative terms.
transnational company
company that manages production or delivers services in more than one country.
transnational feminism
feminism on a global scale, without borders. Race, gender, sex orientation, economic exploitation viewed on a global scale.