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35 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Middle English
A period in the history of the English language lasting from 1100-1500 CE It started after the Norman Invasion and ended with the 100 years war and the introduction of the printing press and the rise of British nationalism
Norman French
A dialect of French that the normans spoke and brough to England in 1066. It served as the administrative and judicial language of England until about CE 1350
A grapheme that existed in Old English and Middle English but dissappeared in EME
Has to do with meaning aka semantics--the meaning goes from broad to narrow. Example goma meant Jaw or Palate or just the general inside of one's mouth in OE, but in ME it narrowed to mean just the gums (part of the mouth)
Has to do with meaning aka semantics--the meaning goes from narrow to broad. Example in OE Gridd meant young bird, but in ME it just meant any type of bird (more general)
Juxtaposition of phrases with out conjunctions
Subordination of clauses
The process by which the meaning of a word becomes negative or less elevated over a period of time, as silly, which formerly meant "deserving sympathy, helpless or simple," has come to mean "showing a lack of good sense, frivolous."
A semantic change, Refering to the loss of a previous sense of disaproval in a lexical item
Example, Mischievous which has loss its strong sense of 'disastrous' and now means the milder playfully annoying
Strengthening and Weakening
Verbs-Generally strong verbs weaken. A strong verb is what we would call an irregular verb today, but they were regular back in the day. Weak verbs are verbs that end in "-ed"
Early Modern English
A period of English that lasted from 1500 AD to 1800 AD. EME began around the time of the introduction of the printing press, the English Renaissance, rising nationalism, enclosures and industrialization and British colonialism and faded into PDE with innovations in communication such as the telegraph, telephone, radio, computer...
Inkhorn Terms
a term of a literary language, a learned or bookish word that exists in writing but not in speech
Prescriptive Grammar
Devines in an authoritative way. The rules of a language as the SHOULD be observed. Almost all EME Grammars were Prescriptive
Descriptive Grammar
Observes in a neutral way the rules of a language as it is actually spoken.
A case in EME that indicates possession with the word "his". Example John Browne his meadow or Ann Harris her lot in some cases, the his-genative functions as the group genitive example--(My stepfather and his wife)'s apartment
Words that have been borrowed from another language twice...means we have two versions of the same word that ultimately come from Latin Examples: Aromor, Armature--Choir, Chorus--Pale, Pallid--Porch, Portico......Cattle came into English during ME period and Chattel (personal property) came in during the EME period but they were both borrowed from the same word--Catel
Parataxis and hypotaxis
Parataxis=the juxtaposition of phrases without conjunctions
Hypotaxis uses subordination of clauses--One or more clauses dependent on another clause sometimes with coordinating conjunctions
Functional Shift
A word that belongs to one part of speech is used for another part of speech Examples: Party Harty (N to V), They will up the price tomorrow (prep to V), I'll have to eyeball it (N to V)
Back Formation
Positing a new word as the source of an existing word Example: "Enthuse" from "enthusiasm," "emote" from "emotion," Babysit from Babysitter
Circumstances that gave rise to English Grammars
In the EME period, people became very concerned with What English should be? With the introduction of the printing press it became easier for widerspread communication and this created a desire for standardization. There was also rising nationalism which led to people focusing on English and having greater pride in English which leads to a desire for standardization. ONe purpose of the grammars was to help people improve their social standing. Robert Loweth set the standard for Grammar usage in his "A Short Introduction to English Grammar"
Formation of Dictionaries durning EME period
Early dictionaries were just word lists the first major dictionary and important dictionary to come out of the EME period was Samuel Johnson's "A Dictionary of the English Language" It set a standard for language use. Dictionaries and Grammars help to codify the language.
The establishment of academies
Academies were established as institutions devoted to researching to perfect a language. The French academy tries to keep French pure from ugly English words. There was a strong wish for an English Academy in the 1700s because people thought English was in decline, however one was never formed. Debate about correctness and elegance.
Present-Day English
A time in English history that went from 1800 AD to now. The start of the PDE period happend with advances in communications technology such as the telegraph, telephone, computer, radio, the development of daily newspapers ect. It also started because English is becoming a world language
Spelling Pronunciation
is a pronunciation that, instead of reflecting the way the word was pronounced by previous generations of speakers, is a rendering in sound of the word's spelling. Spelling pronunciations compete, often effectively, with the older traditional pronunciation.
often, pronounced with /t/, though the pronunciation without it is more prevalent salmon, occasionally pronounced with /l/
Adding an affix to an existing word Example: Final(ize), Trooper(gate) Political campaign with Sarah Palin goes back to watergate, (De)Baath(ification) baath party system
Shorter version of a word is subsitituted for the whole Examples: Fax short for telefacsimile...Fridge for refrigerator...Veggies for vegetables
Echoic Word
Imitative of natural sounds; onomatopoeic: an echoic word.
buzz, zip
Root creations
Creating an absolutely new morpheme that owes nothing to morphemes already in existance these are very rare--Examples, Kodak, Xerox
The brand name for a particular product to refer to that kind of a product not necessarily produced by the original company: Kleenix, Jeep, Hoover, Levis
a regional variety of language distinguished by features of vocabulary, grammar, and pronunciation from other regional varieties and constituting together with them a single language An accent is a variation in pronunciation
Main Ideas from Bryson's "Made in America"
*Social context explains the development of words
*A lot of American history has to do with myth making
*Webster and Franklin wanted to make English a distinct part of the National American Identity
*Native American Influence on vocabulary: Animals, physical features
*Language develops as technology develops
*Mayflower compact use of "f" for "s" sound
Standard Language
A standard language (also standard dialect, standardized dialect, or standardised dialect) is a particular variety of a language that has been given either legal or quasi-legal status. As it is usually the form promoted in schools and the media, it is usually considered by speakers of the language to be more "correct" in some sense than other dialects
Received Pronunciation
The standard way in which British English should be pronounced (RP) used to be BBC English
When speakers of two or more linguistic communities come together for a long time a pidgin is produced. It is a reduced or rudimentary variety of speech that develops b/w or among speakers with no common language. It is not the native language for any groups of speakers and combines morphological, syntactical, lexical and phonological patturns
A pidgin that has become the primary language of a linguistic community. Most creoles have lexicons derived from european languages and are a legacy of colonialism. French Creoles in Haiti, Louisiana Portuguese in Cape Verde Islands
Gullah is a vestage of a plantation creole that has influenced Black English