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47 Cards in this Set

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vitamin A

fat-soluable vitamin
Retinol, Beta-Carotene
function: imp. for pigment of rods in retina. rods enable us to seen in dim light. a lack of vit. A will cause night blindness. long-term vit. A deficency will cause blindness.
--protects against cancer of skin, and other epithelial cells in respiratory tract, GI tract, urinary bladder, and breast.
--stimulates immune system so that vaterial, viral, and parasitic infections are efficently dealt with
--vit. A is an antioxidant, attaching to dangerous free radicals

also necessary for proper bone growth renal function, digestive activity, and normal reproductive function in both sexes.

SOURCES: dairy, liver, fish, yellow and green fruits and vegetables

OD: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, HA, skin peeling, anorexia, irritability, wasting of bone mass, and in fatal cases destruction of the liver.

vitamin A is teratogenic when taken in large doses by pregnant mothers in the first 3 months of pregnancy
vitamin B1

water-soluable vitamin
Thiamine (coenzyme)

function: enables proper carbohydrate metabolism. also plays roll in well-being of the nervous or cardiovascular system

deficency: causes beriberi. beriberi symptoms include wasting of muscles, and malfunctioning of the nervous system. other signs of deficency include anorexia constipation, nausea, mental confusion and depression

sources: grains, cereals, beans, pork, liver
vitamin B2

water-soluable vitamin

function: important component for proper enzymatic activity in metabolism of carbohydrates and its production of energy for the body. necessary for proper growth and maintenance of the body

deficency: can cause anemia and affect the nervous system and cause depression. the tounge, mouth, eyes, and skin may become dried out or sore. HA, burning of the skin (especially the feet), cracking of the corners of the mouth, and seborrheic dermatitis.

sources: cereals, eggs, dark green vegetables, milk, liver
>>may turn urine yellow to orange
vitamin B3

water-soluable vitamin
Nicotinic acid, niacin

function: used in tissue respiration and metabolism.

nicotinic acid has been found to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol. it releases histamine and causes periphial vasodialation.

necessary for lipid metabolism, proper nerve functioning, and overall maintenace of cells

deficency: causes pellagra=diarrhea, wakness, lethargy, dermatitis, dementia, sores in the mouth, GI problems.

sources: nuts, beans, pea, wheat, rice, grains
vitamin B5

water-soluable vitamin
Panthothenic acid (coenzyme)

function: affects body metabolism. it is incorperated into a coenzyme or the enzyme itself to synthesize important compounds in the body such as fatty acids, steroid hormones, and other molecules necessary for protein and carbohydrate metabolic processes.

produced by bacteria within the GI tract of many animals, and is also in plant cells

deficency: HA, sleep disturbances, muscle cramps, and fatigue.

sources: vegetables, cereals, yeast, liver
vitamin B6

water-soluable vitamin

function: functions in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in the diet. because it aids in metabolism this is why it is added to foods. greater metabolism means that carbs are not absorbed by the body

it aids in the absorption of B12. and is a component needed for the production of many different amino acids, inlcuding a major amino acid neurotransmitter found in the brain and spinal cord

deficency: skin problems such as seborrheic type lesions, stomatitis and even seizures. can cause dwarfism, blindness, dementia, depression and osteoporosis.

meat, liver, chicken, salmon, trout, beans, rice, whole grains
vitamin B9

water-soluable vitamin
Folic Acid (coenzyme)

function: essential vitamin for DNA synthesis and creation of cells in areas that have high growth turnover. thse are bone marrow and GI tract.

sources: green vegables, beets, OJ, and liver

deficency: diarrhea, weight loss, weakness, sore mouth, irritability, and behavior disorders. interactions may occur with phenytoin, estrogen, or nitrofurantoin

sources: green vegetables and liver
vitamin B12

water-soluable vitamin
Cyanocobalamin (coenzyme)

function: required by the body for red blood cell production, myelin sheath production, and the synthesis of neucleic acids.

deficency: anemia, dementia, depression, hair loss, poor growth rate in children, and anorexia.

pernicious= severe anemia, unspecific to any cell type
megaloblastic= red blood cells are abnormally formed

sources: meats, liver, chicken, dairy products
vitamin C

water-soluable vitamin
Ascorbic Acid

function: anti-oxidant, formation of connective tissue found in bones, teeth, and gums. aids in wound healing. aids in proper nutrition of cells and their permeability

deficency: causes scurvy=excessive bleeding in the skin and gums, causing teeth to become loose. reduction in body's ability to produce T cells
vitamin D2

fat-soluable vitamin

result of UV radiation on a yeast product found in bread and milk. this gets injested, transported to the liver, and then the hormone calciferol is formed. calciferol is then transported to the kidneys where calcitriol (aka vit D hormone is produced).

vit D hormone increases P absorption and Ca intake. necessary for providing adequate CA and P to mother and child during preg. and breast-feeding.

sources: dairy, eggs, natural light, and artificial light containing UV

deficiency: causes rickets in children=bone weakness and deformities and causes osteomalacia in adults. osteomalacia in adults also causes osteoporosis

OD: hypercalcemia, calcium deposits in various areas of the body such as soft tissue and joints, causing muscle weakness or pain. convulsions or death may occur in serious cases
vitamin D3

fat-soluable vitamin

produced by the skin in presence of UV light

vit D hormone increases P absorption and Ca intake. necessary for providing adequate CA and P to mother and child during preg. and breast-feeding.

sources: dairy, eggs, natural light, and artificial light containing UV

deficiency: causes rickets in children=bone weakness and deformities and causes osteomalacia in adults. osteomalacia in adults also causes osteoporosis

OD: hypercalcemia, calcium deposits in various areas of the body such as soft tissue and joints, causing muscle weakness or pain. convulsions or death may occur in serious cases
vitamin E

fat-soluable vitamin

potent anti-oxidant, essential for normal metabolism and protection of the skin, eyes, tissues, and muscles. protects red blood cells from damage

source: whole grains, nuts, corn, vegetables, eggs, and butter

deficency: anemia and cardiovascular disease
vitamin K

fat-soluable vitamin

responsible for the formation of blood coagulation factors

sources: found in wheat, legumes, egg yolks, milk, and vegetables such as broccoli and spiniach. certain bacteria in the intestine also produce vitamin K as a byproduct of their metabolism.

deficency: cause an increased tendency to bleed. the bleeding may be repeated nosebleeds, blood in the sputum w/o coughing, spontanious bruising in several parts of the body, or blood in the urine
vitamin deficency
a compound that activates an enzyme
a factor that must be present for other factors to be active. All co enzymes are cofactors but not all cofactors are coenszymes
cations (+ charge) and anions (- charge)
a protein that speeds up a reaction by reducing the amoutn of energy required to initiate a reaction; aka biological catalyst
fat-soluable vitamins
vitamins that can be stored in body fat: A, D, E, K
the iron-containing blood cell that carries O^2 to the tissues
condition caused by the presence of too many vitamins; more common with fat-soluable vitamins
intrinsic factor
a naturally produced protein that is necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12
molecular biosynthesis
the making of chemical compounds within a living organism
trace elements
elements needed by the body in very small amounts
water-soluable vitamins
vitamins that are soluable in water and not stored by the body. these must continually be replaced.

avl forms: Ca(CO3)2, (CH3COO)2Ca [calcium acetate}, others

Ind: bone formation, cell transport, nerve and muscle functions

deficency: osteoporosis, rickets

OD: kidney lithiasis or kidney damage

avl as XCl (in ionic compound)


avl forms: Mg(SO4)2, MgCl2

ind: normal muscle and heart function necessary for Vit.C and Ca metabolism

Deficency: HBP, kidney and heart problems, mental confusion

avl forms: dibasic calcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate

ind: necessary for healthy bones and teeth, component of phospholipids in cell membranes

deficency: muscle weakness, defective bone function, arthritis

avl forms: KCl, salt substitute, others

ind: cellular transport, normal muscle, heart, kidney and nervous system functions

deficency: muscle weakness, lethargy, poor growth, and cardiac disturbance

OD: cardiac arrhythmia, cardiac arrest

avl as XSO4
essential trace elements

essential trace elements

essential trace elements

avl forms: cupric sulfate

ind: Fe utilization, skin pigmentation, nervous system functions

deficency: poor bone growth, nausea, nervous system disorders, poor response of immune system

OD: jaundice
essential trace elements

Iodized table salt
essential trace elements

avl forms: ferrous sulfate, ferrous fumarate, ferrous gluconate, iron dextran, iron sucrose

ind: hemoglobin/O^2 transport

deficiency: anemia, poor growth, confusion, loss of appetite, hair loss, SOB, lethargy, heart palpitations

OD: OD effects are SEVERE, include acidosis, liver and kidney impairment, coma

OD: GI disturbance, black stools

gives blood and liver their reddish colors
essential trace elements


ind: necessary for bone formation and for metabolism of amino acids, lipids, cholesterol

deficiency: poor hair growth, nails, and osteoporosis
essential trace elements

molybdenum (not avl as a separate supplement due to its toxicity)
essential trace elements


ind: necessary for proper immune function and growth

deficiency: heart and bone disease

OD: GI disturbances, liver damage
essential trace elements

avl forms: Zinc sulfate, zinc acetate

ind: proper growth and reproduction; helps heal wounds, important to sense of smell and taste, and for skin hydration

deficiency: decreased vitamin D absorption, nausea, hair loss, birth defects, decreased immune response, decreased sperm count

OD: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pulmonary edema, hypotension, tachycardia
pernicious anemia
cyanocobalamin (B12) deficency
megaloblastic anemia
folic acid (B9) deficency
nicotinic acid (niacin) deficency
thiamine (B1) deficency
Name reasons why iron deficiency can occur?
1. lack of iron in the diet
2. pregnancy requires greater intake of iron
3. inadequate intestinal absorption
4. excessive blood loss
5. certain forms of kidney failure in which the kidnesys fail to produce erythropoietin
6. Alcoholism
7. blood loss in women during menstruation
what percentage of the world's population is affected by iron deficiency anemia?
30% of the world's population is affected by iron deficiency anemia