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197 Cards in this Set

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T or F To obtain optimal radiographs of the spine, the disk spaces must be nearly perpendicular to the tabletop and in parallel alignment with each other.
T or F Manually extending a patient’s front and rear limbs for a spinal view is contraindicated if the patient has a spinal column injury.
What is the field of view for the cervical spine?
Base of the skull, entire cervical spine, and first few thoracic vertebrae.
T or F To use the PennHIP method of diagnosing canine hip dysplasia, it is not necessary for the technician to receive special certification
If pelvic trauma is suspected, what view is recommended?
Frog-leg projection
Where is the measurement taken for a hyperextended lateral view of the cervical spine?
To diagnose canine hip dysplasia using the Penn HIP method, which positions are required?
Standard extended view, a compression view with a neutral position, and a distraction view in the same neutral hip position.
What can the PennHIP method of diagnosing hip dysplasia assess that the extended projection alone cannot assess?
A more repeatable and reliable indication of the dog’s passive hip laxity.
T or F A ventrodorsal view is indicated in a patient in respiratory distress.
T or F The thorax should be radiographed during peak exhalation and the abdomen should be radiographed during peak inhalation
When should a dorsoventral view of the thorax be taken?
At the peak of inspiration
What is one advantage of taking a ventrodorsal view of the thorax as opposed to a dorsoventral view?
Better view of accessory lung lobes and caudal mediastinum
Where is the measurement taken for a lateral view of the thorax?
Caudal border of the scapula
How should a patient be positioned to isloate the scapula as much as possible?
Lateral recumbency with the affected limb closest to the cassette.
Where should the measurement be taken to view the scapula superimposed over the cranial thorax?
Cranioventral thorax where the scapula is positioned.
How is the patient positioned to optimally view the scapulohumeral joint?
The unaffected limb muset be pulled caudodorsally while the patient is in lateral recumbency
Where should the measurements be taken for a craniocaudal view of the humerus?
Thickest area over the shoulder
What is the primary disadvantage of the craniocaudal view of the humerus?
Long object-film distance can cause magnification
The lateral view of the elbow requires that:
The unaffected limb be pulled caudodorsally
Where should the measurement for the radius and ulna in craniocaudal view be taken?
Distal humerus
A radiograph of the metacarpus-phalanges requires that:
The beam be centered over the middle of the metacarpal bones.
What is the most apporpriate method to separate a digit from others in order to radiograph it separately while the limb is positioned laterally?
With tape.
T or F. Only one view of the humerus is necessary because it is easily separated from the rest of the body to avoid superimposition.
False. All radiographs require at least 2 views because radiographs are 2-dimensional views of 3-dimensional structures.
When radiographing the pevlis in a lateral position, which femur should be slightly more cranial?
The limb closest to the cassette.
If pelvic trauma is suspected, what view is recommended?
Dorsal recumbency with pelvic limbs in a frog-leg position.
To diagnose hip dysplasia usint the Penn HIP method, which positions are reuiqred?
Compression view in neutral hip position, standard extended view, distracted view in neutral hip position.
Which joints must beincluded in a radiograph of the femur?
Coxofemoral and stifle.
Which view of the stifle is most likely to be magnified?
Where is the cassette placed during the skyline projection of the patella?
Vertically on the tabletop behind the stifle.
What can assist maintaining a true dorsoplantar view of the metatarsus-phalanges?
Rotate the stifle laterally.
Where would the measurement be taken for a caudocranial view of the tibia and fibula?
level of the stifle joint
What aids are used to secure and maintain positions of the limbs when taking radiographs?
Foam wedges and tape.
What can the Penn HIP method of diagnosing hip dysplasia assess that the extended projection alone cannot assess?
THe laxity of the hip joint.
T or F. Any positioning device(s) superimposed on an area of interest must be radiolucent.
What is the filed of view for the cervical spine?
Base of the skull, entire cervical spine, and first few thoracic vertebrae.
Where is the measurement taken for a hyperextended lateral view of the cervical spine?
T-1 (thoracic inlet)
What indicates that a thoacic radiograph is ina true ventrodorsal position?
The sternum is superimposed over the thoacic spine
T or F. For a flexed lateral view of the cervical spine the head is pulled caudally.
Where should the measurement be taken for a lateral view of the thoracic spine?
7th thoracic vertebra
Which vertebrae must be included in a ventrodorsal view of the thoracolumbar spine?
All of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae.
How should the rear limbs be positioned during a lateral lumbar view?
Pulled caudally.
At what angle should the x-ray tube be positioned for a ventrodrosal view of the sacrum?
30 degress toward the head
Where should the cassette be placed for a ventrodorsal view of the caudal spinal?
On the tabletop.
What field of view must be included for the pharnyx?
Lateral canthus of eye, third cervical vertebra.
When should a dorsoventral view of the thorax be taken?
One at the peak of inspiration.
What is one advantage of taking a ventrodorsal view of the thorax as opposed to a dorsoventral view?
The VD view allows better visulaization of the caudal mediastinum and accessory lung lobe.
Where is the measurement taken for a lateral view of the thorax?
Caudal border of the scapula.
When is a lateral view of the thorax with a horizontal beam indicated?
When fluid or free air is suspected in the thorax
T or F. During expiration the diaphragm is more cranial then during inspiration.
Why is a right lateral view of the abdomen preferred over a left lateral view.
To allow better separation of the kidneys.
What is the preferred exposure time for views of the thorax?
1/30th second or less.
What may help to achieve a long scale of contrast for an abdominal view?
High kVp and low mAs.
When should an enema ve given for a view of the abdomen?
At least 1 hour before radiography.
What type of radiographs should have sequential markings?
Ones using radiopaque contrast media to show the time lapse.
When measruing a body part, where should the measurement be taken?
the thickest part.
How many views are minimally required for each specific view taken?
Why is collimation so important?
Prevents scatter radiation, allows more specific detail to area needed, includes landmarks of specific view.
Why is a marker required on a film?
Mandatory for legal and practice considerations. It should be labeled so it can be identified at a later date to evaluate disease progression or healing.
Where should the marker be placed for a limb radiographed in lateral recumbency?
Cranial to the limb.
T or F. Taking oblique views of the metacarpals and phalanges is often necessary.
What is the advantage of raising the limb oppostie to the one being radioprgahes?
Restricts the patient's movement.
List 3 things that are benefical to successful large animal radiography.
Patience throughout the process, teamwork during the exam, plan before the exam.
What position is the horse inwhen taking an abdominal radiograph?
List all required elements of a radiograph label.
Date taken, hospital/veterinarian address, Patient ID: Name, breed, sex, age, case or patient number
T or F. High exposure factors are needed due to the size and posture of the horse
What are some restraint devices that can be used with horses?
Twitch, stocks, sedation. Surface of patient should be cleaned. Topical containing iodine should be washed away. Bandages removed if possible.
T or F. Areas of the body such as thoax, abdomen, and thoracic spine can be radiographed with low power equipment.
What procedure aids in removing gas lines when the hoof is radiographed?
Shoe pulled, hoof trimmed. Sole and celft picked and scrubbed clean. Hoof packed with radiolucent material: play-doh or softened soap, putty to pack the grooves to eliminate air lines.
Why is it important to know the anatomy or structures of the animal you are radiographing?
To include the proper landmarks, the proper view to include the anatomy that needs to be seen, so that special preparation of different anatomical parts can be done. Distal limb must be IDed ad L or R and front or hind
T or F General Anesthesia is not required to radiograph the equine pelvis.
T or F When attempting to radiograph an equine limb, it may be helpful to elevate the opposite limb to prevent movement
What device can be used to protect the assistant during a lateral view of the distal phalanx?
wood block
What angle is required for a dorsopalmar/dorsoplantar oblique view of the third phalanx?
45 degree angle to the ground directed at the hoof wall.
What x-ray tube is required for a dorsopalmar/dorsoplantar oblique view of the navicular bone with the animal standing on the cassette?
65 degree angle directed toward the middle of the second phalanx.
What view is taken to study the medial sesamoid bone of the right front fetlock?
Dorsopalmar/dorsoplantar view
What are the splint bones also known as?
The second and fourth metacarpals or metatarsals respectively
Where should the beam be centered for views of the stifle joint?
Over the stifle joint, about 4 inches distal to the patella
Why are oblique views necessary for the dental arcades?
To avoid superimposition of the opposite arcade.
In order to prevent an air artifact superimposed over the area of interest when radiographing the equine foot, what material should be used to pack the foot according to the text?
What is the first concern when radiographing horses?
The physical safety of the people handling the horse and the safety of the horse
must always be the first concern
In general, how many people are required to take radiographs with equine patients and what are their responsibilities?
three people: one to tend the horse's head,
one to operate the radiograph machine, and one to position the film cassette.
What necessitates special consideration when radiographing an equine patient?
Patient restraint, equipment, patient preparation, radiation safety, positioning devices.
Why is it important to introduce an equine patient to the equipment before taking radiographs? What are some things you can do as the introduction?
To avoid startling the animal. Allow animal to sniff equipment, avoid sudden movements or loud noises.
Name a few methods that are helpful in restraining the horse?
Twitch, stocks, sedation
What should you do if the horse can’t be sedated?
Movement can be restricted if someone holds up one of the animal’s legs
What is one piece of equipment that can help reduce exposure to the assistants?
Cassette holder
Who is responsible for making sure the personnel is a safe distance from the primary x-ray beam?
What is the advantage of raising the limb opposite to the limb being radiographed?
Restricts the patient’s movement
What is the proper preparation of horse for x-ray to produce an artifact free film?
Surface of patient should be cleaned, iodine topical washed away thoroughly
Why should the sole and clefts be scrubbed clean of debris before taking a film?
To reduce the possibility of artifacts.
Why is it a good idea to use a portable x-ray machine when taking radiographs out in the field?
They can use lower voltage of electricity
What is the advantage of mobile x-ray units?
Can be moved, are powerful and can penetrate thick body parts smaller machines cannot
What are some disadvantages to using a large mounted x-ray unit?
The noise generated by the rotors is noisier.
Why should each horse be treated individually when determining how to restrain for a procedure?
They each are individuals with different backgrounds and one single approach does not work well with every horse
What should you do if the horse becomes fractious?
Use the voice in a clam manner, touching calmly if you safely can. Have a buddy horse as they are herd animals. Be patient. Give them time and space to calm.
Why can covering the eyes work well for certain procedures?
Sometimes when a horse can’t see what is being worked on it will be submissive
List the two classifications of twitches and how they are used
Natural – pinch loose skin on lip, shoulder, ear. Mechanical
Why are stocks used?
To confine the horse to a small area and restrict movement and to protect the medical personnel from being kicked when the hindquarters are being treated.
Why is overfilling the grooves in the sole of the foot with Play-doh not a good idea?
It may create more artifacts that can obscure an appropriate diagnosis.
What are 2 positioning devices that can be used in x-raying a horse's foot?
A positioning block made of wood or a cassette tunnel.
What is the first concern in radiographing a horse?
safety for the horse and people involved.
Why should you acclimate the horse to the radiographic equipment prior to taking x-rays?
Horses are large animals who startle easily. The procedure should go as smoothly as possible and avoid any injuries to personnel or animals.
What does the first and second word of the view indicate?
1st: location of the x-ray machine. 2: location of the film cassette.
What is the most common error in large animal radiography?
What is the most common method of restraining a horse for radiographs?
There are several methods, but sedation is the most common.
What are the 2 major differences between a horse and a dog when radiographing?
All directional terms and directions apply, but size and psoture are the 2 major differences.
Explain the differences between the protable, mobile, and stationary x-ray machines used for horses.
Portable is used in the field and is light and easy to use. Power is limited and there is the problem of motion. Mobile unit ahs more power, shorter exposure time, but is heavy and hard to move around. Stationary has the most power and can be moved vertically to take an image.
Which area of the horse is x-rayed the most?
List 3 things to prevent motion when radiographing areas of the large animal.
Make sure the patient is properly restrained, check the machine, and the cassette must be held as still as possible.
What other view may also be obtained to gather more information?
Oblique (angled view)
How are radiographic views named?
Direction of the x-ray beam from the machine to the film cassette
T or F. A portable x-ray machine has more power than a mobile unit.
Why shoudl bandages be removed before radiographing that area?
They may obscure subtle anatomical lesions.
What are splint bones also known as?
2nd and 4th metacarpals/metatarsals
T or F. In radiation safety in large animals, the attendant's focus is on the animal rather than the x-ray beam.
What device can be used to protect the assistance during a lateral view of the distal phlanax?
Wood block with slot to hold cassette and a cassette holder wiht a clamp and long handle.
Compare and contrast mobile fixed and protable machines.
Mobile are least frequently used. They are more powerful and portable, but used moslty in human hospital. They are heavy and hard to move. Fixed are mounted to floor or ceiling tracks so the mobility is limited in the room. OF the 3 type of machines they have the highest output capabilities, but they may still not be able to penetrat the pelvis of large animals. Portable machines are thelowest output, but most commonly used as they are taken on farmm calls.
Why is it necessary to use a grid when radiographing the thorax or abdomen of a horse?
The body part is very thick and the grid prevents overexposure to radiation.
Why is the spine missed sometimes when taking a radiograph?
The beam is centered too far dorsally.
Because of the horse's weight, what positioning device can be used so the wieght can be put directly on top of the cassette?
A cassette tunnell.
Where should the beam be centered for views of the stifle joint?
4 inches distal to the patella
What angel is required for a doropalmar/dorsoplantar oblique view of the third phlanax?
45 degree angle to the ground directed to the hoof wall.
What is the guideline for determining a true dorsoplantar direction on an x-ray of the tarsus?
Beam is centered on imaginary line drawn from the middle of the hoof wall to the tibia.
What views are necessary for an unobstructed view of the metatarsus/metacarpus?
Lateral and medial oblique
What view is taken to view the medial sesamoid bone of the right fetlock?
dorsomedial/palmoralateral oblique view.
What positioning is the horse when the thorax is radiographed?
Why is it important to know the anatomy/structures of the animal you are radiographing?
There needds to be a marking system for distal limb/lower leg radiographs. Film must be ID with a marker that is front or hind and Left or right.
What x-ray tube angle is reuired for a dorsopalmar/dorsoplantar oblique of the navicular bone with the animal standing on the cassette?
65 degree with the beam directed towards the middle of the second phalanx
Which radiographic equipment enables shorter exposure times due to high Ma capacity
Mobile units
How can you assure that a lateral view of the stifle joint will be of diagnostice quality?
By extending the limb forward and as cranially as possible.
T or F. A longer exposure time is necessary when radiographing avian and exotics.
T or F. Avian and exotic patients are measured using a caliper
T or F. Maximum kilovoltage (kvP) is less important in avian and exotic radiography
T or F. The same principals in radiography that are used in companion animals can also be used with avian and exotics.
T or F. There is no risk of scatter radiation when imaging a small patient such as avian or exotics.
List the three types of restraint used for avian and exotics
Manual, physical, chemical
Physical restraint involves certain devices. List 4 of them
Radiolucent adhesive tape, sandbags, plexiglass, ropes
What is the preferred exposure time for radiographing avian and exotics?
1/40 second or less
If putting a bird or exotic patient under anesthesia, what should be used to prevent hypothermia?
Heat lamp or towels
These bones of the avian are thinner than in other animals
. Cortices, tubular bones
A large portion of the skull in an avian is devoted to what system?
Vision (eye
What are the differences in the number of cervical vertebrae between mammals and birds?
Most mammals have 7 while birds have between 11-25.
What is the place of origin for flight muscles in the bird?
Chest and shoulders
What part of the skeletal system supports the legs?
Why is a right lateral view taken on an avian patient?
To maintain consistency with comparable anatomic reference material
List two ways to take whole body radiographs of a rat.
Tape and a radiolucent plexiglass or a radiolucent tube.
What is the advantage of using a radiolucent tube for small rodent radiography?
Easy to get a sternal recumbency
What is the best method of restraint for the rat?
Adhesive tape
Why can radiography images be difficult on a turtle?
Due to the prescence of the shell
List two ways to restrain a turtle for radiography images
Adhesive tape or a radiolucent plastic box.
How do you prepare a turtle for dorsoventral radiography?
Turn it on its back and just before exposure turn it on its ventral side. The legs and head will naturally extend from shell.
What determines the type of restraint needed for a lizard?
The size and disposition of the lizard.
How do you protect the personnel during radiography of an aggressive lizard?
The snout should be tied and chemical and/or physical restraint used.
Snakes are difficult to radiograph due to their anatomy. What is the best way to obtain a good radiograph of a snake?
Placed directly on the cassette, a radiolucent plastic box or a clear plastic tube.
Why is it preferred that the snake be radiographed in a coiled position?
In a coiled position the entire snake can be radiographed
What is unique to labeling when radiographing a snake?
If radiographibng in sections, each section should be numbered or labeled
What is the best way to radiograph a fish and why?
In a sealed plastice bage with enough water to allow respiration and a plexiglass sheet can be used to compress the bag and the amount of water surrounding the fish.
List two ways a lateral view of a fish can be exposed
Bag placed on the cassette, beam overheard centered on middle of body
Why is the source image distance(SID) reduced when taking dental radiographs?
It’s the result of the film being elevated off the table.
Why is it important to rotate the animal’s head when taking upper dental arcade films?
It eliminates superimposition of the contralateral arcade
What is used in separating lower and upper arcades when radiographing the lower mouth?
A radiolucent mouth gag
What is the best view to take to visualize a tooth or tooth root?
Lateral intraoral view
How does the equine dental exam begin?
With sedating the patient
Why is sedation necessary when radiographing the equine’s teeth?
For safety for the horse and personnel
Why is dental floating important for the health of the equine’s teeth?
Equine’s teeth keep growing. Eating wears them down, but uneven edges can developcausing sores on the tongue and cheeks.
What are some problems noted by owners that may signal a dental exam is needed?
The horse is dropping grain or treats when it eats, taking more time to finish its feed, losing weight, failing to thrive, tossing its head under saddle, excessive salivation, blood in mouth, sores along tongue or cheeks.
What type of equipment is needed for an equine dental exam?
Speculum, mild sedative, bright focal light source, dental mirror, some vets use oral camers or rigid endoscopes, long handled probes, long handeled files/rasps, elevators forceps/pliers for extractions.
List a few common views taken in radiographing equine teeth
Standard views in equine dental radiography generally include lateral, dorso-ventral, and oblique views [3,5] of the arcades and are taken using extraoral film. These views are challenging to interpret because of the superimposition of oral structures. An open-mouthed oblique technique thatseparates the arcades [6] was recently described.
Which teeth have no function in the equine?
Wolf Teeth
Which part of the dog and cat’s mouth make film positioning difficult?
The medical border of the mandible and maxilla
List pathologic findings for which dental radiographs are useful
Tooth fractures, CUPS, periodontal disease, stomatitis, tumors, fistulas, cysts, foreign objects subgingivally.
What are the primary dental x-ray machine parts and what are the functions of each?
Dental x-ray units are usually mounted on a wall overlooking the dental suite. The x-ray tube head is suspended from an articulating arm that allows for precise positioning in the anesthetized pet. A dental x-ray unit permits accurate placement of the film with minimal movement to the patient. Intra-oral film comes in various sizes and provides detailed images. The x-ray film is placed in the pet's mouth. The x-ray unit is then positioned using the parallel or bisecting angle technique to produce an accurate image.
What does the intraoral film consist of?
Waterproof exterior to protect film from saliva and light. Radiographic film covered with black protective
Which part of the film goes into the mouth?
All of it with the white surface with the raised dot facing the beam
How do you know to place the film in the right direction of the x-ray beam?
The white surface with the raised dot faces the beam
What are the various sizes of dental film required in veterinary practice?
0 to 4.
What type of film developer is necessary for dental films?
Maual or automatic processor or chairside processor
How can an automatic processor be used for developing dental films?
Tape the dental film to the back of a standard film
What caution is necessary when using digital technology in some patients?
Digital requires more radiation than standard. Patients must also have adequate anesthesia to avoid damaging the sensor which is costly to replace.
What are some errors that can occur in processing dental films?
Cone cutting. Elongation and foreshortening. Errors in exposure and processing times or kVp or mA. Film placed in mouth with wrong side towards beam.
Explain the paralleling technique to obtain dental radiographs
. It requires the film to be placed parallel to the long axis of the teeth and positioned to be aimed for the center of the film. Only used for mandibular teeth caudal tosecond premolars.
Explain the occlusal technique to obtain dental radiographs
. Film is placed on the occlusal plane. The beam is directed at right angle to film. Sows larger areas on 1 film
Explain the bisecting technique to obtain dental radiographs
Minimizes distortion of dental structures when paralleling technique is not an option. Beam projected at right angle to imaginary line that bisects the angle formed by plane of the film and long axis of the tooth.
List the radiopaque structures seen in the mouth
Cementum, dentin, bone. Enamel covering the crown, lamina dura
List the radiolucent structures seen in the mouth
. Soft tissue, periodontal ligament space, pulp, mandibular canal
Why is it important to know normal anatomic structures versus abnormal anatomic structures?
So that normal sturcutres can be ID from pathologic structures
What causes a film to appear too dark and unable to read the imagea
Errors in kVp or mA settings or exposure or processing times
How should aggressive lizards be restrained for radiographs?
Snouts tied and chemical and/or physical restraint.
T or F. Adhesivwe tape is the preferred method of restraint for rodents.
What is the average travel time for barium traveling from the gizzard to the cloaca in birds?
1/2 to 4 hours.
When radiographing a bird why is it important to extend the neck?
To help keep the airway clear.
T or F. Maxiumum kilovoltage is not important for avian and exotic radiography.
Explain why both manual and physical restraints have limitation when radiographing avians and exotics.
Manual results in increased radiation exposure. Physical restraint can result in injury from struggling or excessive patient stress.
What is an advantage in using a radiolucent when radiographing a rodent?
No manipulation is required for whol body views.
T or F a raised (concave) dot is present on the white wrapper of the film whereas a recessed (convex) dot is present on the colored part of the film
T or F. Maximum kilovoltage is not important is not important for avian and exotic radiography.
Why is the SID decreased in a DV view of the maxilla?
The film is in the mouth off the tabletop.