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9 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are some of the post-translational modifications a prohormone can undergo?
1) Cleave to have multiple copies of the hormone

2) Cleave to hormones and inactive fragments

3) S-S difsulfide bonds
Name 5 tissues that make steroid hormones and the 6 major steroid hormones (some are groups of related hormones).
Adrenal cortex: cortisol, aldoesterone, androgens
Kidney: 1,25 Dihydroxy-vitamin D3
Skin: Vitamin D3
Testes: Androgens
Ovaries: Estrogen, progesterone
Placenta: Estrogen, progesterone
What are 3 tissues that make amino-acid derived hormones and the 6 major hormones?
Pineal gland: melatonin
Thyroid gland: triiodothyonine and thyroxine
Adrenal medulla: Epinephrine, norepinephrine
Where are the posterior pituitary hormones made? How do they get to the posterior pituitary? How does this process differ from the synthesis-storage-release pattern by traditional peptide hormones?
1) Made in cell bodies of neurons in the hypothalamus

2) Secretory vesicles containing hormone are transported down long extensions of the neurons into posterior pituitary and vesicle contents are released into the circulation.
Distinguish between long-loop negative feedback and short-loop negative feedback. Give examples of each.
Long-loop: Negative feedback from a peripheral endocrine gland hormone to the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary
ex) Endocrine hormone decreases hypothalamus and anterior pituitary hormones

short-loop: pituitary hormones feed back to decrease hormone secretion by the hypothalamus
ex) anterior pituitary hormone decerases hypothalamic hormone
What are portal systems? Name 3 locations and what is the primary advantage of using them?
Specialized region of the circulation consisting of 2 sets of capillaries directly connected by a set of larger blood vessels

Kidneys, digestive system, and brain

Advantage: a much smaller amount of hormone can be secreted to elicit a given amount of response
Distinguish between:
Permissiveness: 1 hormone cannot fully exert its effects unless a second hormone is present
ex) if thyroid isn't present, then maturation of the reproductive system is delayed

Synergism: The effect of interacting hormones is additive
ex) glucagon and epinephrine and elevating blood glucose
Distinguish between anterior and posterior pituitary
Anterior: true endocrine gland of epithelial region; hormones are adenohypophyseal secretions

Posterior: extension of neural tissue of the brain; secretes neurohormones made in the hypothalamus
List the 3 basic patterns of endocrine pathology
1) Hypersecretion exagerrates a hormone's effects: