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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back


A relative permanent change in behaviour due to experience


A chemical message about it manufactured by a neuron that is released into the bloodstream and carry to target neurons or cells; compare with neurotransmitter


A hormone that may affect memory consolidation of emotionally arousing experiences; also called epinephrine


A neurotransmitter that plays crucial roles in the growth and strengthening of synaptic connections during learning and memory formation


A structure located deep within the brain that has a crucial role in processing emotions


A structure located deep within the brain that has a crucial role in the consolidation of most of our memories


The biological process of making a newly formed long-term memory stable and enduring after learning

Hebb's rule

Explanation of changes to synaptic connections between neurons during learning; often summarised as 'neurons that fire together, wire together'

Long-term depression (LTD)

The long-lasting decrease in strength of synaptic transmission; compare with long term potentiation

Long-term potentiation

The long-lasting strengthening of synaptic connections, resulting in enhanced or more effective neurotransmission across the synapse; compare with long-term depression

Neural plasticity

The ability of the brain's neural structure or function to be changed by experience throughout the lifespan

Synaptic plasticity

The ability of a synapse to change over time to use or disuse


Processing, storage and retrieval of information acquired through learning


In relation to memory, conversion of information into a form that can be neurologically represented and stored in memory


In relation to memory, retention of encoded information over time

Atkinson-Shiffrin multi-store model

Represents memory as consisting of three separate stores (components) called sensory memory, short term memory and long-term memory

Maintenance rehearsal

Repetition of information over and over again so that it can be kept in short term (or working) memory


The process of consciously manipulating information to keep it in short-term memory, to transfer it to long-term memory or to aid storage and retrieval

Elaborative rehearsal

The process of linking new information in a meaningful way with information already stored in memory or with other new information to aid its storage and retrieval from long-term memory


Recovery of stored information and bringing into conscious awareness for use

Storage capacity

The amount of information each store can hold at any given moment

Storage duration

Length of time information can be held by each component

Sensory memory

The entry point of memory in which the stimuli that bombard the senses are retained in their original sensory form for a very brief time

Echoic memory

Auditory sensory memory for incoming auditory information that stores sounds in their original sensory form for about 3 or 4 seconds

Iconic memory

Visual sensory memory for incoming visual information that stores visual images in their original sensory form for about a third of second

Short-term memory

A memory system with limited storage capacity in which information is stored for relatively short time, unless renewed in some way; also functions as 'working memory'

Long-term memory

A memory store that holds a potentially unlimited amount of information for a very long time, possibly permanently

Explicit memory

Memory that occurs when information can be consciously or intentionally retrieved and stated

Episodic memory

The long-term explicit memory of personally experienced events