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17 Cards in this Set

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  • Back

What is romanticism and how did it manifest in America?

After the 1700's science was important but one generation rebelled against the old customs and didn't want to be logical about everything. Reaction to the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. The old South was the most romantic place in America. Southerners saw themselves as characters in Sir Walter's books (i.e. knights, maidens, etc.)

What were the features and ideas that came from The Second Great Awakening and what long term effects did the movement have on the nation?

Spread Evangelical Christianity especially in the South. Reform movements/Mormons/cults/women's rights/abolitionism.

What was the antebellum South and why was slavery growing

The antebellum South was the period from 1830 - the Civil War. Also period which slaves are in fields and slavery is growing. Slavery is very important in the South because it had become the world's leading producer of cotton. (Cotton Gin was invented by Eli Whitney.)

What were the arguments for those who were for slavery and those who were against it?

Pro-Slavery: Slave owners had a "parental" feel towards the slaves and claimed that without them they wouldn't have anywhere to go with no food or shelter. Argued that non-slaveholders were forced to move to the North where they had to compete for jobs in unsafe and unsanitary factories where they worked for long periods of time all the while risking their health and life. They don't have to compete with foreign labor.

Anti-Slavery: It was immoral to own another human being. Pretty much anything that you can see wrong with slavery is what they argued about. Why is this even a question?

What was slavery like on a day-to-day basis?

Planters: owners who had 20+ slavers. These were low in number, but some owned as many as 500 and sometimes more slaves, but were very rare.

Vast majority of people in slave states never owned slaves. Those who did owned 1-3 even in the North. The few planters had most, if not all, of the power. Old South was not a Democratic place. The planters were the senators and governors and their sons became the senators, governors, lawyers. They also owned the banks.

Violence was the bottom line of slavery. In order to force people to do what they don't want to do. Most people who owned slaves in Old South didn't want to cause violence in the first place but there were cruel masters, but not always. (whippings, mutilations, death.)

Slaves worked on average 6 days a week, but was seasonal. Slaves did have a religion. Most didn't convert to Christianity until after the 2nd Great Awakening. Tried to start their own churches on plantations. Moses was very important in Slave Christianity. Preferred their own churches and preachers. Sometimes slave owned didn't like them having their own preachers.

What caused the Mexican War and what were the most important things that resulted from it?

Polk made it seem that the US was defending itself from the Mexicans, which eventually provoked the war. It wasn't long nor difficult. Texas was annexed as a state in America.

Why did sectionalism increase during the 1850's?

Slavery was becoming a huge issue and was beginning to tear the country apart. Like with the compromise of 1850 when the debate was being held in California because some people supported slavery and some didn't. Of course, in the end, Cali. becomes a free state. (ayyye lmao). However, stronger fugitive slave laws are put into place which causes tension in the North where people didn't want to have to deal with slavery head on.

What was "Bleeding Kansas" and important things that resulted from it?

"Bleeding Kansas" refers to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Stephen Douglas believed in popular sovereignty and wanted Transcontinental Railroad to run through Chicago, but if this happened the US would have to organize Louisiana Purchase into states. He of course worked out a compromise. Take Nebraska territory, divide in two (Kansas & Nebraska) and have them vote on whether they wanted slavery or not.

Border Ruffians: Pro-slavery (of course) and came from Missouri (not surprising). In 1856 they attacked and destroyed things which was called "Sack of Lawrence".

As a result of all of this, Sumner was beat with a cane in the Senate and almost died. The North and South had varying opinions on it, but of course the South was happy that it happened because Southerners are crazy rednecks who love violence.

Why did the first and second "waves" of secession occur?

First Wave: Southern states left the country after Abraham Lincoln won the election.

Second Wave: More Southern states left after he called for volunteers to help out and keep things calm.

What advantages did each side have during the beginning of the Civil War?

Union: 4:1 ratio of men (had a lot to do with immigration). 10:1 ratio of industrial (shoes especially). 97% of all guns produced in the US before the Civil War were made in the North. They also had a bad ass Navy which was much more superior to the Confederacy's.

Confederacy: Perceived to have the best generals. Believed they only had to play defense, Northerners had to come to the South. Don't really have to win, just have to outlast the Union. Home field advantage.

Why was the Civil War the deadliest military conflict in American History?

Because Americans were used to wars like the Mexican War where it wasn't very violent and it didn't last for a long time. They were surprised by the amount of casualties and were shocked by how long the war lasted. Nearly as many men died in captivity during the Civil War as were killed in the whole of the Vietnam War.

Who were the most successful Civil War generals? Why?

Grant: Given the task of capturing as much of the Mississippi River as possible and was successful.

Sherman: Was ruthless and initiated total war.

Lincoln: Cool president. Almost as cool as JFK. Almost.

Lee: Not sure what he did but he was pretty cool considering there's a school named after him and all, you know?

What was "total war? and what affect did it ave on the Civil War?

Total war included not only the opposing side's soldiers, but also their people. The affect that it had on the Civil War was cruel because Sherman marched through the South and destroyed everything in his path.

What were the two most important, key battles that turned the Civil War toward Union victory?

Gettysburg and Vicksburg. (July 3 and 4).

Gettysburg: Had no strategy and started as a fight between a few soldiers who ran across each other in town while some were trying to find some shoes to wear. Eventually grew into a large fight.

Vicksburg: What was keeping Union from having all of Mississippi River. It was heavily fortified and built on a hilly area. But the Union took it over and then controlled the entire River which was a huge success for them. (Go team!)

How did Abraham Lincoln come to decide that the Emancipation Proclamation was necessary in order to win the war?

Freed slavers within states that the Union controlled so that the men could fight within the war and help bring an end to it sooner.

What was the purpose/goal of Reconstruction?

To bring the country back together under Lincoln and to stop war and bickering. Basically the North and South were siblings who were always arguing and the South was the snotty-nosed little sibling that thought that stomping its foot and running away would solve its problems but Lincoln was like "nuh-uh son."

How did the white South react to reconstruction?

The white Southerns were, of course, mad because they had to live in the country under Lincoln, the man whom had freed their slaves. They were also readmitted into the United States after the war. LOL.