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86 Cards in this Set

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regulating the specific gravity (amount of dissolved substances in the blood) - involves regulating water levels and ions
bean-shaped organ located retroperitoneally (outside peritoneum)
Renal artery
brings blood into kidney
Renal cortex
outside of kidney
Renal medulla
inside of kidney
Renal pelvis
expanded section of ureter that receives urine from kidney
carries urine to urinary bladder
carries urine from bladder to outside of body (in males, it combines with the vas deferans of the reproductive tract to form the urogenital canal)
Mammalian Urinary system
-Renal artery
-Renal cortex
-Renal medulla
-Renal pelvis
functional unit of kidney
Parts of Nephron
-Bowman's capsule
-Proximal convoluted tubule (cortex)
-Loop of Henle (medulla)
-Distal convoluted tubule (cortex)
-Collecting duct (cortex and medulla)
bunch of capillaries - blood pressure forces liquid out of the blood and into Bowman's capsule - cells stay behind, liquid called glomerular filtrate
Bowman's capsule
expanded proximal end of the uriniferous tubule
Proximal convoluted tubule (cortex)
reabsorbs some water and NaCl
Loop of Henle (medulla)
reabsorb glucose, amino acids, vitamins, etc. via active transport and create a hyperosmotic interstitial fluid - see below. Unique to mammals and some birds.
Distal convoluted tubule (cortex)
reabsorb water, actively secrete hydrogen, potassium, drugs, salts. Nitrogenous waste left in urine
Collecting duct (cortex and medulla)
transport urine to renal pelvis
180 l of water leaves blood and enters uriniferous tubule per day, there are only 5 liters of blood and 1-2 liters of urine are produced per day. What happens to the rest of the water?
Proximal convoluted tubule - pumps Na+ ions into interstitial fluid, Cl- follows which draws out water - 2/3 of water in glomerular filtrate is thus immediately returned to blood, but that still leaves us losing 60l of water per day.
Loop of Henle
Proximally = descending loop, distally = ascending loop
Descending loop
permeable to water but not NaCl - water leaves
Ascending loop
permeable to NaCl but not water, Na+ ions actively pumped out drawing out Cl-
Interstitial fluid now........
..........hyperosmotic, that is; saltier than fluid in uriniferous tubule
Distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct
water permeable, so water leaves urine to fix osmotic imbalance
Regulation - antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
when an animal needs to conserve water, the posterior pituitary releases ADH which increases the number of water channels in the plasma membranes so that more water is reabsorbed
Nitrogenous waste Fact #1
Amino acids have nitrogen in them
Nitrogenous waste Fact #2
When amino acids are catabolized for energy, ammonia (NH3) is produced. Ammonia is very toxic.
Nitrogenous waste Fact #3
Bony fishes and larval amphibians secrete ammonia from the gills
Nitrogenous waste Fact #4
Cartilaginous fishes, adult amphibians, and mammals convert ammonia to the much less toxic urea for excretion
Nitrogenous waste Fact #5
Reptiles, birds, and insects convert ammonia to uric acid which is not very soluble in water, so it precipitates out and can be eliminated with little loss of water
Nitrogenous waste Fact #6
mammals produce some uric acid which is converted by an enzyme called uricase into the more soluble allantoin. Humans, apes, and Dalmatians are the only mammals to lack this enzyme and must secrete uric acid. Gout is an accumulation of uric acid crystals in the joints.
combination of sperm and egg
(virgin birth) - common in inverts but not verts. In verts, usually parthenogenic species arise via hybridization producing an all female species. Females still require sperm to activate the eggs, but no recombination occurs (some teid lizards, some fishes)
-Protogyny (first female)
-Protandry (first male)
-Sequential - both male and female at the same time
(first female) - in species where males defend territories, it is good to be large when male - Bluehead wrasse
(first male) - even a small male can produce enough sperm to inseminate any female he come is contact with, but a large female can produce more eggs than a small one, so better to be female when large - groupers
both male and female at the same time - common in inverts, not common in verts, except the hamlet fish (a type of grouper). Most have to fertilize others
III. Sex determination
Sex determination for Mammals
Males XY, females XX
Sex determination for Birds
Males XX, females XY
Sex determination for Insects
many different systems
Sex determination for most fishes, amphibians, and reptiles
environmental determinism - depends on temperature
____________ is the default sex, something must be added to make the animal _____________
female, male
when females are sexually receptive - in most species this is the only time when sex will occur - estrous cycle
Changes in ________________ and ________________ from the anterior pituitary cause egg cell development and hormone secretion in the ovaries
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), lutenizing hormone (LH)
Menstrual cycle
similar to estrous cycle but found only in humans and apes - females shed inner lining of uterus and may engage in sex at any time during cycle
Induced ovulation
rabbits and cats - ovulate only after sex which makes them very fertile
Male reproductive system
Testes, Scrotum, Epididymis, Vas deferans, Prostate, Bulbourethral gland, Penis, Spermatogenesis
Seminiferous tubules, interstitial tissue
Seminiferous tubules
produces sperm
interstitial tissue
produces testosterone
outpocketing of coelom into which testes descend. Keeps the testes at 34°C vs. 37°C which is better for sperm production in humans
receive sperm and transfer to vas deferans
Vas deferans
(ejaculatory duct) - takes sperm out of body - in mammals it joins with the urethra at the prostate gland to form the urogenital canal
contributes 60% of bulk of semen
Bulbourethral gland
secrete a fluid that lines urogenital canal and lubricates the tip of the penis
intromittent organ; Corpora cavernosa, Corpora spongiosum, Erection
Corpora cavernosa
two columns of erectile tissue along dorsal side
Corpora spongiosum
one column of erectile tissue along ventral side
blood flows into erectile tissue which compresses the veins so that blood cannot leave. Many animals with a bone (baculum) that aids
release of approximately 5 ml of semen containing 300 million sperm (1 % of semen). Males with 20 million sperm/ml are considered sterile
formation of sperm
Spermatogenesis Fact #1
Wall of seminiferous tubules with germinal cells (or spermatogonia) that split via meiosis
Spermatogenesis Fact #2
Germinal cells first split by mitosis, one daughter cell will split via meiosis (primary spermatocyte), but other remains diploid
Spermatogenesis Fact #3
Primary spermatocyte undergoes first meiosis to form 2 secondary spermatocytes
Spermatogenesis Fact #4
Secondary spermatocytes undergo second meiosis to form 4 spermatids
Setoli cells
secrete products required for spermatogenesis and help to convert spermatids to spermatozoa by engulfing the spermatids extra cytoplasm
Made up of: Head, Body, and Tail
Sperm Head
compact with nucleus and acrosome (derived from golgi body) that contains enzymes that allow the sperm to penetrate the egg
Sperm Body
centriole - base of body of flagellum and mitochondria for energy
Sperm Tail
flagellum for movement
Female reproductive system
Clitoris, Labia majora, Ovaries with ovarian follicles, Fallopian tubes (oviducts), Uterus, Cervix, Vagina, Oogenesis,
from same tissue as penis - contains corpora cavernosa and is erectile
Labia majora
from same tissue as scrotum
Ovaries with ovarian follicles
each with egg cell and granulosa cells
Fallopian tubes
(oviducts) - transport ova to uterus
in primates a single pear-shaped organ where growth of fetus occurs. In most animals there are two uterine horns - derived from oviduct
projection of uterus into vagina
receptacle for penis
formation of eggs
Oogenesis Step #1
At birth - 2 million follicles each with an ovum arrested in prophase I of meiosis (primary oocyte)
Oogenesis Step #2
FSH stimulates a few follicles to develop, but only one reached full maturity - tertiary or Graafian follicle
Oogenesis Step #3
Follicle forms a thin walled blister on surface of ovary
Oogenesis Step #4
Primary oocyte completes first meiosis in follicle. Cleavage is uneven producing a small first polar body and a large secondary oocyte
Oogenesis Step #5
Secondary oocyte begins meiosis II but arrested at metaphase II when ejected from ovary when follicle bursts because of an increase in LH
Oogenesis Step #6
Oocyte enters abdominal cavity and is pulled into the fallopian tube by the action of ciliary cells
Oogenesis Step #7
If fertilized in Fallopian tube, meiosis II continues and forms second polar body and ovum which joins with sperm
Oogenesis Step #8
Fertilization is in upper 1/3 of fallopian tube - it takes 2-3 days for the zygote to implant in the endometrium of the uterus