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30 Cards in this Set

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New Weapons

tanks,machine guns, grenades, poison gas, airplanes, zeppelins, air-balloons, anti-aircraft gun

Wilson’s Fourteen Points- (1918)

-President Woodrow Wilson sought to reducethe risk of future wars: the 14 Pointsincluded no secret treaties, freedom of the seas, removal of all economicbarriers and support of equal trade, reduction of weapons, allow selfdetermination for colonials, and mutual guarantees of political independencefor all nations. -He also supported the establishment of anassociation of nations to maintain peace known as the League of Nations.

Zimmerman Note

Acoded message written by German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmerman and sent toMexican president Carranza in 1917 during World War I. It proposed a German-Mexican alliance andsuggested Mexico attack the United States, thereby distracting the UnitedStates from WWI. If Germany won WWI,then Mexico would get its territory back from the U.S.U.S. discovery of this message led to the U.S.entering WWI on the side of the Allies


In World War I the powersof the Allies (Great Britain, France, Russia), with the nationsallied with them (Belgium, Serbia, Japan, Italy, including the UnitedStates); opposed to the Central Powers

American Expeditionary Force

Americanmilitary personnel sent to the Western front by President Woodrow Wilson afterhis declaration of war in April 1917, under the command of Gen. John J.Pershing.


anagreement made by opposing sides in a war to stop fighting for a certain time;a truce.

Conscientious Objector

a person who for reasons ofconscience objects to serving in the armed forces.

Central Powers

During World War I, Germany and Austria-Hungary, withtheir alliesTurkey andBulgaria.

Convoy System

agroup of merchant or troopships traveling together with a naval escort during WWI.

League of Nations

Aworld organization established in 1920 to promote international cooperation andpeace. It was first proposed in 1918 byPresident Woodrow Wilson, although the United States never joined theLeague. Essentially powerless, it wasofficially dissolved in 1946.


Britishocean liner sunk by a German submarine off the coast of Ireland, 1915. Thoughunarmed, the ship was carrying munitions for the Allies, and the Germans hadcirculated warnings that the ship would be sunk. The loss of life 1,198 peopledrowned, including 128 U.S. citizens outraged public opinion. The U.S. protested Germany's action, andGermany limited its submarine campaign against Britain. When Germany renewed unrestricted submarinewarfare, the U.S. entered World War I in April 1917.


a policy in whichmilitary preparedness is of primary importance to a state


Loyaltyand devotion to a nation


Information, or ideasdeliberately spread to help or harm a person, group, movement, institution,nation; used during war-time


Payment in money ormaterials by a nation defeated in war. After World War I, reparations to the Allied Powers were required ofGermany by the Treaty of Versailles.

Treaty of Versailles

(1919) Allied leaders wrote theTreaty of Versailles, the formal agreement to end World War I. Their challenge was to divide the territorycontained in four empires which collapsed at the end of the war: Russia,Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire, and Germany. The treaty established the League of Nationswhich obliged each country to defend the territory of other member countries. It also charged Germany with responsibilityfor the war, requiring it to pay reparations to the Allies and stripping thecountry of all colonies.

Trench Warfare

A type of combat in which opposing troops fightfrom trenches facing each other. Trenches were built during WWI to provideprotection from the enemy artillery. Both the Allies and Central Powers constructed elaborate trenches. Thearea between the trenches was known as “no man’s land”.

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare

The practice of usingsubmarines to attack and sink all forms of enemy shipping, whether they aremilitary or civilian. When Germanybegan to use unrestricted submarine warfare in WWI, it was quickly condemned byneutral nations, and the U.S. pressured Germany to stop. The German decision to restart the submarinewarfare was an attempt to knock Britain out of the war through a submarineblockade and caused the U.S. to enter the war.

Victory Gardens

The government wantedindividuals to provide their own fruits and vegetables; people planted gardensin backyards, empty lots and even city rooftops. Neighbors pooled their resources, planteddifferent kinds of foods and formed cooperatives, all in the name of patriotism

World War I

World War I was a globalconflict from 1914-1918. Allied Powers(Great Britain, France, and Russia) defeated the Central Powers (Germany andAustria-Hungary). The war was triggered by theassassination of Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Slavic nationalist, butthe central issues were: Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism among major Europeanpowers.

Battle of Argonne Forest

During World War I, U.S.troops under General John J. Pershing participated in the last major offensiveof the war, the Meuse-Argonne, which began on September 26 and ended onNovember 1, 1918. Over the 42 days, 1.2million U.S. troops fought to repulse the forces of the Central Powers. The heaviest fighting occurred in the ArgonneForest where one-tenth, or 120,000, of all U.S. troops died due to roughterrain, heavy machine gun fire, and inadequate training.

Selective Service Act (draft)

authorized the federal government to raise a national armyfor the American entry into World War I through the compulsory enlistment ofpeople.

November 11, 1918

TheGermans surrendered on November 11, 1918. The U.S. made a separate peace with Germany and never joined the Leagueof Nations.

April 2, 1917

Wilson asked Congress todeclare war.US troops in World War I from 1917-1918

Reasons for US involvementin World War I:

1) German U-boats(submarines) sank the British passenger liner Lusitania 1915, at the cost of128 American lives; (2) Zimmerman Telegram/Note sent to Mexico, 3) Germany broke the Sussex Pledge and announcedits plan to wage unrestricted submarinewarfare in 1917.

Henry Cabot Lodge (1850-1924)

-A senator from Massachusetts, supportedAmerican expansion as a way to increase national pride, spread civilization,and thereby gain world power. -He and Theodore Roosevelt, drawing upon the theoriesof naval historian Alfred Thayer Mahan, favored the "large policy”, whichdepended on world trade and ship transport.

General John J.Pershing (1860-1948)

-spent his life in the military. -He fought in the Indian Wars.- He spent nearly a decade in the Philippines and then was sent toMexico to apprehend Poncho Villa in 1914.- In 1917, Pershing was selected to lead the AmericanExpeditionary Force to Europe during World War I. His troops wereinstrumental in the defeat of the Germans in the Argonne Forest.

Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)

Hetried to keep the United States neutral after World War I broke out in1914; after Germany had repeatedly violated the Sussex Pledge, the countryfinally did enter the war in 1917.-hispeace plan was known as the Fourteen Points; wanted a League of Nations toprevent future wars;-bitterly disappointed when the United StatesSenate later refused to permit the U.S. to join the League of Nations

Alvin York

startedas conscientious objector; became one of the most decorated soldiers of the United States Army in World War I.He received the Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a German machine gunnest, taking 35 machine guns, killing at least 28 German soldiers, andcapturing 132 others.


person who believes that war and violence are unjustifiable